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Standard Flight Training Procedures - Cessna 172RThe following guide is intended to reduce both student and instructor frustration by standardizing mostof the maneuvers you will encounter during your flight training. By no means is this document intendedto replace governing directives, manuals and procedures. It merely supplements established FAA guidanceand is specific to the aircraft you will train in at AIA Academy. It should be noted that sometimes it mightbe necessary to deviate from these standards depending on conditions. These standards are based onprocedures derived from the FARs/AIM, FAA handbooks, FAA evaluators and our very own flightinstructors. Additionally, your flight instructor will provide more details and techniques for performingthe various maneuvers.1

CAUTION ENSURE YOU CONDUCT ALL MANEUVER PRACTICE TRAINING WITHIN THE SCHOOL’S ALLOCATEDPRACTICE AREAS. FAMILIARIZE THEM AND ITS BOUNDARIES. BE AWARE OF THE APPROACH & DEPARTURE PATH OF LOCAL AIRPORTS. AVOID LINGERING INTHOSE AREAS WHILE PRACTICING MANEUVERS. ENSURE ALL STALLS, SLOW FLIGHT, AND STEEP TURNS ARE PERFORMED ABOVE 3000’ AGL. MINIMUM ALTITUDE TO ENTER SPIN PRACTICE IS 6000’ AND A MAXIMUM OF A 2-TURN SPIN ONLY. KEEP IN MIND AN INADVERTANT SPIN CAN OCCUR WHILE PRACTICING STALLS DUE TO MISSHANDLING OF CONTROLS. BE PREPARED AND KNOW HOW TO RECOVER FROM A SPIN OR SPIRAL. ENSURE THAT STALLS AND SPINS ARE NOT BE PERFORMED WITH ANY PASSENGERS OR BAGGAGEONBOARD. CONFIRM SUFFICIENT FUEL AVAILABLE FOR FLIGHT AT ALL TIMES AND THAT THE FUEL SELECTORVALVE IS IN THE CORRECT POSITION. ALWAYS USE THE CORRECT METHOD FOR EXCHANGE OF CONTROLS. BE VIGILANT OF TRAFFIC AND BIRDS, ESPECIALLY IN THE TRAFFIC PATTERN. DO NOT SIMULATE ENGINE FAILURE ON TAKE OFF OR APPROACH BELOW 1000’. YOUR HAND SHOULD ALWAYS REMAIN ON THE THROTTLE CONTROL DURING TAKE OFF ORLANDING. Practice all call outs as required by AIA ACADEMY TRAINING, listed below. Do not OVER CONTROL the aircraft. Learn to be smooth. Before each solo, get a detailed briefing and required endorsements from your instructor. Performonly those maneuvers briefed and approved by your instructor for that flight. Do not get in the habit of automatically applying rudder to the side you are rolling. Check the balland coordinate. Checklists for critical emergencies should be memorized and practiced to get quick, immediaterecall and action. Practice emergencies by moving your hand to simulate the appropriate action,with your eyes looking at the location of the instrument. It is harder to perform during anemergency without good practice.2

Pre-Flight Be sure to arrive for each flight WELL prepared. After you’ve been trained to do the pre-flight, you willbe expected to arrive 15 TO 20 MINUTES early to have the pre-flight done prior to your scheduledlesson time. Please note that if an aircraft needs to be removed from the hangar, you must have an AIAACADEMY staff person assist with aircraft handling. You should have studied the flight maneuvers/briefing items and checked the weather, NOTAMS,Weight & Balance and Performance Data prior to every flight. Your flight instructor will assist you withthis in the early part of your training and then you will be expected to do this on your own before eachflight. Pick up your dispatch paperwork and keys from the front desk PERSONNEL ONLY, prior to pre-flight. The interior/exterior aircraft inspection should be conducted in accordance with the checklist. Be sureto have the checklist in hand as you perform the inspection. Practice SRM & ADM for every flight. Ask your instructor if you are not fluent in this. ALWAYS CHECK FUEL AND OIL, ADD AS REQUIRED FOR THE FLIGHT. Minimum fuel for training flightis 1 hour Reserve after landing. There are also checklists for before starting, starting engines, taxi and before takeoff. Be sure to usethem!Taxi Perform all Checks as per check list. Hold check list high enough to see outside the aircraft whileperforming the checks (or clip it on the yoke). Call out the name of the CHECK before performing the list (i.e. “Checks Before Taxi”). Have a fingeron the checklist item as you perform them so you don’t skip any. Prior to taxi, set radios, navigation, and the altimeters per the checklist. Have an airport diagram forreference and note the “Hot Spots.” Perform a flight control check prior to engine start, call out “full and free control surface movement,”listen, and make sure there are no abnormal rubbing or grinding noises. Confirm engine instruments IN THE GREEN after startup (oil pressure, electrical, etc.). Be alert for aircraft rolling forward. Make sure the brakes are holding properly immediately afterengine start. Confirm and say “wingtips clear.” In turns, check and call out “Tail wing area clear.” Check the brakes GENTLY, as you start moving forward. DO NOT brake with power on. Slow down, before entering any taxiway to ensure it is clear in both directions before entering. Callout “taxiway clear.” Taxi speed should always be at a walking pace and at a slower pace when close to other aircraft. Keepa close eye on your wing tips as you taxi by other aircraft or obstacles. Once clear of obstacles youmay taxi at a brisk walking speed. Always keep the nose wheel centered on the taxiway line.3

Don’t ride the brakes with “power on.” If you are taxiing too fast, simply reduce power first and thenuse brakes as required. Perform a flight instrument check during taxi. This must be performed only in a taxiway turn, neverin the ramp area or near other aircraft.Instrument Checks – Call out:1) Aircraft Turning (L/R).2) Compass & DG turning L/R passing .3) A/H pitch & Bank normal.4) Turn Coordinator L/R Slip & L/R skid.5) ASI & VSI zero. This is also a good time to start painting a picture of who is in the traffic pattern by looking aroundand listening to the radio. Slow down near runway crossings & Hot Spots. Call out “Crossing runway .” Visually check thatthe runway and approach are clear. Ask your co-pilot to check his/her side. Remember to flashlanding light upon crossing active runways and Hot Spots.Before TakeoffNote: HOLD CHECKLIST UP WITH FINGER ON EACH CHECK. YOU NEED TO HAVE A GOOD VIEW OUTSIDESO YOU CAN TAKE ACTION IF AIRPLANE MOVES FORWARD. Taxi within 10’ of the edge of the run-up area, near the end of the active runway so you do not blockother traffic from entering the runway. Do not cross the hold short line. Make sure your nose wheel is straight when stopping for run-up. Check wingtips are CLEAR, position the aircraft into the wind (for engine cooling during engine runup), set parking brakes and perform the following:1. Run-Up Checks2. Pre-Takeoff Checklist3. Take off Checklist Visually look at flight control response during check. Call out the movement. For the departure briefing mention the runway you are taking off from and its length, the requiredtakeoff roll you calculated, Vr, VX, VY, your initial turn, the altitude to level off, and direction of flight. Then, perform the emergency briefing, including emergency takeover of controls by captain. Theentire briefing should usually take no longer than 1 minute. Visually look at the position of the flaps and for possible split flap condition. Check the traffic patterns around the airport before takeoff. Make your radio call before enteringthe runway. Set Clock & note time prior to entering runway. Check all approaches and runways before entering runway.4

Normal Takeoff Set flaps 0 . Set heading bug to departure runway heading. After clearance, call out “confirming runway and runway heading for takeoff.” Check all final approaches and runways on taxi out to runway. Align the airplane with the runway centerline. If a crosswind exists, turn the control wheel turned into the wind. Set Mixture to RICH (above 3,000’, LEAN for max RPM). Smoothly apply full power and confirm RPM is normal by calling out the RPM. Quickly check engine gauges as per checklist. Make sure your feet heels are on the floor and toes are not pressing the brakes. Anticipate the need for adding right rudder to counter engine torque and left-turning tendency ofthe airplane. If a crosswind exists, reduce control wheel input into the wind as you accelerate. Call out “airspeed alive” as the ASI starts registering. Call out speed & rotate at 55 KIAS. Call out and confirm “positive rate of climb, wings level.” Call out VX and pitch for VY. Check and call out “no drift.” If you are drifting, use correct drift adjustment control, especially if youare taking off from a parallel runway. Quickly trim for VY. Your hand should be placed immediately onto the throttle control. Climb at VY (79 KIAS) until reaching 1000’ AGL. Perform after takeoff checks. Cruise climb at 85–90 KIAS above 1000’ AGL. LEAN above 3,000’ MSL for smoothest operation or toobtain max RPM. Check area ahead and around clear during climbs and before turning. If you are departing the pattern, and at pattern altitude, depart “straight out” or 45 from thedirection of the pattern. If you are remaining in the pattern, turn crosswind no sooner than 300’ MSL below TPA and thedeparture end of the runway. When leveling off in the pattern, simply reduce power to 1900–2000 RPM, hold level attitude, buildspeed to 90 KIAS, and then reduce RPM to maintain downwind speed of 90 KIAS. If you are heading out to the practice area, level off at an altitude above 3000’ AGL. Set cruise RPMto 2200–2300, until you reach the practice area.5

Short Field TakeoffObjective: To perform a takeoff using the minimum take off roll required for the conditions. To clear a 50foot obstacle immediately after takeoff, with sufficient clearance. Set Flaps to 10 . Taxi onto the runway using ALL available runway length. Align airplane with the runway centerline. Stop and hold the brakes. If a crosswind exists, turn the control wheel into the wind. Set Mixture to RICH (above 3,000’, LEAN to obtain maximum RPM). Apply full power. Call out “RPM normal.” Check that the engine gauges are normal IN THE GREEN. Release brakes. Anticipate the need for adding right rudder to counter engine torque and left-turning tendency ofthe airplane. If a crosswind exists, reduce control wheel inputs into the wind as you accelerate. Rotate at normal Vr (55 KIAS) and pitch at a slightly higher-than-normal takeoff attitude to achieve aclimb at 57 KIAS until clear of obstacles at above 75’ AGL. Slightly lower the nose to accelerate to 65 KIAS. Confirm over 100’ and call speed and PROC (positiverate of climb). Retract flaps in increments, check speed and PROC. Accelerate and continue climb at VY (79 KIAS).Soft Field TakeoffObjective: To perform a takeoff from a soft surface runway. Set flaps to 10 and hold full aft elevator while taxing onto runway. DO NOT use abrupt braking. Beaware that the wheels can get bogged down. Do not stop the aircraft when entering onto the runway (due to “simulated” soft ground). Align the airplane to the runway centerline, while adding full power with aft elevator controls, andmanaging constant-pitch attitude for rotation. Quickly check engine gauges and call out RPM. If a crosswind exists, turn the control wheel into the wind. Anticipate the need for adding right rudder to counter engine torque and left turning tendency. If a crosswind exists, reduce control wheel inputs into the wind as you accelerate. As the nose wheel begins to lift off the runway, be prepared to reduce elevator backpressure. Holdtakeoff attitude until the airplane flies into ground effect. Lift off at minimum flying speed while gently lowering the nose to a nearly level attitude. Acceleratein ground effect to VX (65 KIAS). Begin climb-out at VY (79 KIAS). When you are above 100’ AGL, retract flaps after calling out speedand PROC. Perform a normal climb-out at VY (79 KIAS).6

Cruise Flight Maintain 100 – 110 KIAS (approx. 2200 – 2300 RPM). Perform Cruise Checklist. Look for traffic and birds. Navigate to the practice area using ground references. Periodically check engine instruments, fuel balance, and update heading gyro.Training Area ArrivalNote: Know your school’s allotted practice areas. Learn how to identify the boundaries by physical features. Monitor the appropriate radio frequency. Switch to the Approach frequency for TRAFFIC ADVISORY,if needed. Remember there are a few airports near us (including SAC International – Class C). Stayaway from the approach and landing paths of these airports. Stay away from Nav-aids, such as VORs,where traffic is converging to. Perform the E.F.F.C.L. checklist.(Check Engine gauges, Fuel level and Fuel Selector position, Flaps position, Clearing Turns, LandingLight on). Pick a heading and set heading bug. Level clearing turns (90 heading change through both directions). Set power to 1900 – 2000 RPM, 90 KIAS, and TRIM. Generally plan on the following sequence; however, your flight instructor may vary the profile asrequired.Steep TurnsObjective: To perform a 45 –55 bank turn, maintain attitude, maintain altitude, maintain speed, roll outon the correct heading). Remember that your stall speed increases with bank/load factor - Refer to theairplane’s POH.) This maneuver is practiced to improve aircraft control skill and also to use as anemergency turn maneuver. Perform the E.F.F.C.L. checklist.(Check Engine gauges, Fuel level and Fuel Selector position, Flaps position, Clearing Turns, LandingLight on). Pick a heading and set heading bug. Set power to approx. 1900 – 2000 RPM. TRIM for 90 KIAS, note RPM. Note the outside attitude. Roll into a constant roll rate turn, reaching 20 – 30 bank. Add 100 – 200RPM and backpressure to maintain airspeed/altitude. Apply a touch of rudder to balance the turn.Remember to check that the ball is centered. Hold off the roll/stop roll at 45 – 55 bank. LOOK OUTSIDE FOR THE CORRECT ATTITUDE & BANK to maintain level and 90 KIAS. Once established in the turn, quickly glance inside to check the speed, altitude, VSI, and heading. Theprimary reference to control the aircraft must be the outside reference of attitude. DO NOT chase7

or fixate on the instruments. Lead your roll out by about 20 off your set heading. As you roll out passing 30 bank, reduce backpressure (apply forward pressure), using rudder forcoordination, and reduce power back to 1900 RPM. Return back to level attitude and stay on altitudeand airspeed.Note: Do not practice doing steep turns using any trim control. This defeats the purpose of the training.Slow FlightObjective: To maintain slow speed flight in the region of the reverse power curve, maintain heading andattitude. Coordination and control at low airspeeds, maintaining heading, attitude, and altitude. Perform the E.F.F.C.L. checklist.(Check Engine gauges, Fuel level and Fuel Selector position, Flaps position, Clearing Turns, LandingLight on). Pick heading and altitude to maintain during the maneuver. Set the heading bug and get an outside visual point of reference. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Maintain attitude, heading, and altitude, keeping the ball centered(don’t let the nose pitch down and roll when reducing power). Set flaps to 10 below 100 KIAS, then to full flaps (30 ) below 85 KIAS. Maintain altitude and heading, keep the ball centered. Slow down to 55 – 60 KIAS and TRIM. Increased pitch & power will be required to maintain altitude and airspeed when flying at 55 – 60KIAS (2200 – 2300 RPM). Note attitude. Quickly glance only to check speed and altitude. FLY BY ATTITUDE, DON’T CHASE THE SPEED. Add enough rudder to center the ball on the turn coordinator. You will likely feel a slight buffeting and very ineffective flight controls at slow flight speeds. Stabilize SPEED at 55 KIAS before making any turns. Do not lose altitude. Make very shallow-banked turns (10 or less), as required. Recover by adding full power and keeping the ball centered. When above VX (65 KIAS), raise flaps inincrements. Maintain heading and altitude as you accelerate to cruise speed. Do not over-speed flaps (i.e. VFE 85 KIAS). When reaching 90 KIAS, reduce power to approx. 1900 – 2000 RPM.8

Power Off StallObjective: Practice recognition and recovery from a stall in landing configuration, simulating a finalapproach condition, prior to entering stall. Perform the E.F.F.C.L. checklist. (Check Engine gauges, Fuel level and Fuel Selector position, Flaps position, Clearing Turns, LandingLight on). Pick heading and altitude to maintain during the maneuver. Set the heading bug. Set power to 1900 – 2000 RPM, and TRIM for 90 KIAS. With light control pressure, check for roll tendency of the plane in level flight.If excessive roll tendency exists, DO NOT perform the stall. Set power to 1500 RPM, and maintain altitude as you slow down. Set flaps to 10 below 100 KIAS, then to full flaps (30 ) below 85 KIAS Pitch for 65 KIAS. Set power to idle (1000 RPM). Pitch for a gentle descent of 300-400 FPM, TRIM for 65 KIAS. Initiate the stall by smoothly raising nose slightly above horizon (10 – 15 ) and hold that attitude withbackpressure. Slow the aircraft gradually, without abrupt pitch up. Maintain direction, keep wings level and the ball centered. Recover: When aircraft stalls, (first sign) simultaneously release backpressure to pitch slightly belowthe horizon, use opposite rudder for any roll correction, and add full power. Use right rudder tocounter left yaw when increasing RPM. Do not lower nose excessively below horizon, keep ball centered. Call out speed above 60 KIAS before changing to a pitch-up attitude above the horizon to initiate aclimb. Check VSI and call out PROC. When above VX (65 KIAS), retract flaps to 20 . After accelerating past 65 KIAS and PROC, retract flaps to 10 . Retract final flaps when above 65 KIAS, confirm PROC. Climb at VY (79 KIAS).9

Turning Power Off StallObjective: Practice recognition and recovery from a stall in a landing configuration, simulating a finalapproach turn condition, prior to entering stall. Perform the E.F.F.C.L. checklist. (Check Engine gauges, Fuel level and Fuel Selector position, Flaps position, Clearing Turns, LandingLight on). Pick heading and altitude to maintain during the maneuver. Set the heading bug. Set power to 1900 – 2000 RPM, and TRIM for 90 KIAS. Perform Clearing turns. 1900 RPM, 90 KIAS E.F.F.C.L. (Check Engine, Fuel level & Fuel Selector, Flaps, Clearing Turn, Carb Heat, Lights on) With light control pressure check for roll tendency of the plane. If excessive roll tendency, do notperform Stall. Throttle 1500 RPM (maintain altitude for level flight as you slow down). Flaps full below 85 KIAS. Throttle idle - 1000RPM. Establish a normal glide with 300-400 ft ROD with 10’ to 15’ degrees of bank. Gently pitch up slightly above horizon and hold it there with backpressure, slowing the aircraftgradually, no abrupt pitch up. Maintain constant bank angle 10/15 degrees, ball centered and pitch attitude until the stall (firstsign) occurs. As aircraft stalls, simultaneously release backpressure, get attitude slightly below horizon, useopposite rudder to counter roll, Open full Throttle & level wings. Do not lower nose excessively, keep the ball centered, apply right rudder to counter yaw whileopening throttle to full power. Call out Speed above 60 KIAS and pitch up to slightly above horizon for climb. Call out positive rateof climb, then retract Flaps to 20’ Return to a climb attitude as soon you have 65 KIAS. Retract flaps to 10’ after accelerating past 65 KIAS -PROC. Retract final flaps above 65 KIAS, confirm positive rate of climb (PROC) Climb at VY (79 KIAS)10

Power On StallObjective: Practice recognition and recovery from a stall in Takeoff configuration, simulating a takeoffcondition , prior to entering stall. Perform Clearing turns. RPM 1900, 90KIAS, Trim. With light control pressure check for r