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NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING YO UR WO RLDABOUTFOLLOW M Y ACCOUNT DONATEJournalism & Media ARCHMEN URESEARCH AREASFACT H TJUN 16, 2017 Audio and Podcasting Fact SheetMOR FACT H T : TAT OF TH N W M DIAAudience conomic The audio news sector in the U.S. is split by modes of delivery: traditional terrestrial (AM/FM) radio and digitalOwner hipremains steady in its revenue, online radio and podcasting audiences have continued to grow over the last decade.Find out moreExplore the patterns and longitudinal data about audio and podcasting below. Data on public radio is available in aformats such as online radio and podcasting. While terrestrial radio reaches almost the entire U.S. population andseparate fact sheet.AudienceThe audience for terrestrial radio remains steady and high: In 2016, 91% of Americans ages 12 or older listened toterrestrial radio in a given week, according to Nielsen Media Research data published by the Radio AdvertisingBureau, a figure that has changed little since 2009. (Note: This and most data on the radio sector apply to all types oflistening and do not break out news, except where noted.)Weekl terre trial radio li tener hipChartData hare m ed% of Americans ages 12 or older who listen to terrestrial (AM/FM) radio in a givenweekYear% of American age 12 or older who li ten to terre trial (AM/FM) radio in a given 91%201691% ource: Niel en Audio RADAR 131, Decem er 2016, pu licl availa le via Radio Adverti ing ureau.P W R ARCH C NT RAccording to “The Infinite Dial” report by Edison Research and Triton Digital, the portion of the public listening toonline radio continues to grow. In 2017, 61% of Americans ages 12 or older have listened to online radio in the pastmonth, while about half (53%) have listened in the past week. This is up from 57% and 50%, respectively, in 2016,continuing online radio’s steady year-over-year growth.

Online radio li tener hipChartData hare m ed% of Americans ages 12 or older who have listened to online radio in the past %44%201657%50%201761%53%Note: di on Re earch and Triton Digital' urve i conducted in Januar /Fe ruar of each ear. Online radio include li tening to terre trial (AM/FM) radio tation online and/or li tening to treamed audio content availa le onl on theInternet. ource: di on Re earch and Triton Digital, "The Infinite Dial 2017."P W R ARCH C NT RNielsen lists news/talk/information among the most listened-to radio formats; in 2016, 9.6% of radio listeners tunedin to a news/talk/information station during any 15-minute period during the dayMo t li tened-to radio format ChartData hare m ed% of U.S. radio listeners ages 6 or older who turned to each format during any 15 minute period during the dayFormat% of li tener New /talk/information9.6%Pop contemporar hit radio8.1%Adult contemporar 7.5%Countr 7.4%Hot adult contemporar 6.4%Cla ic hit 5.3%Cla ic rock5.1%Ur an adult contemporar 4.8%All port 4.7%Mexican regional3.7%Ur an contemporar 3.7%Note: how percentage of U. . radio li tener in Niel en' Porta le People Meter (PPM) market age 6 and older whotuned in to each format during an 15-minute period during the da from Januar -Novem er 2016. ource: Niel en Media Re earch pu licl availa le data.P W R ARCH C NT ROnline radio listening in cars, like listening to AM/FM stations online or streaming other online audio, continued itsincrease since 2010, when it was at just 6%. In 2017, 40% of U.S. cellphone owners have ever listened to online radioin a car using a phone.

Online radio li tening in car cellphone owner Chart hareData m ed% of U.S. cellphone owners who have ever listened to online radio in a car using aphoneYear% of U. . cellphone owner who have ever li tened to online radio in a car u ing a 37%201740%Note: di on Re earch and Triton Digital' urve i conducted in Januar /Fe ruar of each ear. Online radio include li tening to terre trial (AM/FM) radio tation online and/or li tening to treamed audio content availa le onl on theinternet. ource: di on Re earch and Triton Digital, "The Infinite Dial 2017."P W R ARCH C NT RThe percentage of podcast listeners in America has substantially increased since 2006. In 2017, four-in-ten Americansages 12 or older have ever listened to a podcast, according to Edison Research and Triton Digital survey data, and 24%have listened to a podcast in the past month, up from just 9% in 2008. (This chart, as well as the subsequent chartalso about podcasts, applies to all types of listening and does not break out news; this is primarily related to ongoingtechnological challenges with compiling and centralizing metrics, making fine-grained breakouts by format difficult.)Podca t li teningChart hareData m ed% of Americans ages 12 or older who have listened to a podcast .Year verIn the pa t 7%201636%21%201740%24%Note: di on Re earch and Triton Digital' urve i conducted in Januar /Fe ruar of each ear. Monthl podca t li teningdata wa not reported in 2006 or 2007. ource: di on Re earch and Triton Digital, "The Infinite Dial 2017."P W R ARCH C NT RThe average weekly unique users who download NPR podcasts, which include some of the most popular podcasts inthe iTunes library such as Up First and TED Radio Hour, rose from 2.5 million in 2015 to 3.5 million in 2016,according to NPR data from Splunk. (More information will be available about public broadcasting in a future factsheet.)

NPR podca t u er Chart hareData m edAverage weekly unique users who download NPR podcastsYearAverage weekl unique u er who download NPR podca t 20142,000,00020152,500,00020163,500,000 ource: NPR, a ed on data from plunk.P W R ARCH C NT R conomic Average radio revenue remained steady in 2016 for radio stations in the major news formats, according to PewResearch Center analysis of BIA/Kelsey data. Over the last seven years, the average station revenue for these all-newsstations has hovered between 16 and 19 million per year. (It is worth noting that only 20 of the 29 all-news stationscurrently listed in the BIA/Kelsey database have revenue data during any of these years and thus are the only onesincluded in the averages.)Average revenue for stations in all-news, news/talk and news/talk/info formats is substantially lower than all-news –in 2016, 2.4 million per station. This likely stems from the fact that this category represents a much larger number ofsmaller stations (438 stations in the BIA/Kelsey database in this category have revenue data during any of theseyears).All-New Chart hareDataNew /Talk/Info m edAverage station revenue for all news radio stations (in U.S. dollars)YearAverage tation revenue2009 16,358,0002010 17,727,0002011 18,724,0002012 18,195,0002013 17,990,0002014 17,333,0002015 17,282,0002016 17,462,000Note: Data are updated ever ear. IA/Kel e ' data a e contain revenue data for 19-20 all-new radio tation in each ear hown here. IA/Kel e t picall doe not report revenue for tation that are not part of a radio market. Data includefull-power AM and FM radio tation in the IA/Kel e data a e in 50 U. . tate and Wa hington, D.C. ource: Pew Re earch Center anal i of IA/Kel e data.P W R ARCH C NT R

Owner hipAs of 2017, there were 29 AM or FM stations that are categorized as “all-news” listed in the BIA/Kelsey database,down three from the last year. CBS Corp. (which recently announced plans to merge with Entercom) is currently theparent company of 10 of these 29 stations.Num er of all-new radio tation ChartData hare m edNumber of all news stations, by parent companyCall201420152016C Corp.*101010Hu ard roadca ting Inc.333 inclair roadca t Group Inc.222Neal Ardman222Cox Media Group222Cumulu Media Inc.222Gene i Communication Network221Radio Free Mo cow Inc.111Pa kvan Media Inc.111Calvar Inc.111Time - hamrock Communication 111Talking tick Communication LLC111CC Media Holding Inc.011Jet roadca ting Inc.001 loom erg Communication Inc.110 mpire roadca ting Corp.110Maine Pu lic roadca ting Corp.010Radio One Inc.100*C Corp. announced a planned merger with ntercom in earl 2017.Note: Data include full-power AM and FM radio tation in the IA/Kel e data a e in 50 U. . tate and Wa hington, D.C. ource: Pew Re earch Center anal i of IA/Kel e data.P W R ARCH C NT RFind out moreThis fact sheet was compiled by Elisa Shearer, who is a research analyst focusing on journalism research at PewResearch Center.Read the methodology.Find more in-depth explorations of audio and podcasting by following the links below.Trump, Clinton Voter Divided in Their Main ource for lection New Jan. 18, 2017Civic ngagement trongl Tied to Local New Ha it Nov. 3, 2016The Modern New Con umer Jul 7, 2016

NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING YO UR WO RLDABOUTFOLLOW M Y ACCOUNT DONATEJournalism & Media ARCHMEN URESEARCH AREASFACT H TJUN 1, 2017 Cable News Fact SheetMOR FACT H T : TAT OF TH N W M DIAAudience conomic Cable TV is home to a set of news channels that have become a destination for political news. In fact in 2016, cableNew room inve tmentFinancially, these channels have generally set themselves apart from other news media by their comparatively robustFind out morebusiness model. Explore the patterns and longitudinal data about cable news below.news topped Americans’ list of most helpful source types for news and information about the presidential election.AudienceAccording to Pew Research Center analysis of Nielsen Media Research data, viewership increased for cable newschannels in 2016. In prime time, combined average viewership for the three major news channels (CNN, Fox Newsand MSNBC) increased by 55% to 4.8 million viewers. (Audience data for the three major financial networks – CNBC,Fox Business and Bloomberg – are not available.)Prime-time ca le viewer hipChartData hare m edCombined average prime time viewership (CNN, Fox News and MSNBC)YearViewer 844,00020153,080,00020164,764,000 ource: Pew Re earch Center anal i of Niel en Media Re earch data, u ed under licen e.P W R ARCH C NT RDaytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) average viewership also grew – up 36% over the previous year.Da time ca le viewer hip

ChartData hare m edCombined average daytime viewership (CNN, Fox News and MSNBC)YearViewer 826,00020151,997,00020162,722,000 ource: Pew Re earch Center anal i of Niel en Media Re earch data, u ed under licen e.P W R ARCH C NT R conomic Total revenue across the three channels was projected to increase by 19% in 2016, to a total of nearly 5 billion,according to Pew Research Center analysis of SNL Kagan data. This includes increases in both of the main revenuesources: advertising and license (affiliate) fees. The three major financial networks (CNBC, Fox Business andBloomberg) saw increases in total and license fee revenue, while ad revenue was flat.Total revenueChartData hareAdverti ing revenueLicen e fee revenue m edCombined projected annual revenue (in U.S. dollars)YearFox New , CNN, M N CCN C, Fox u ine , loom erg2006 1,781,500,000 603,400,0002007 2,008,500,000 683,000,0002008 2,478,000,000 830,400,0002009 2,641,500,000 866,700,0002010 2,868,400,000 892,100,0002011 3,153,900,000 958,800,0002012 3,369,700,000 979,500,0002013 3,498,400,000 1,023,200,0002014 3,640,400,000 1,098,300,0002015 3,987,400,000 1,166,500,0002016 4,763,200,000 1,224,700,000Note: Num er are projection and often revi ed annuall even for previou ear . Di pla ed num er indicate mo t recentupdate . ource: NL Kagan.P W R ARCH C NT R

Fox News, MSNBC and CNN were all projected to grow their profits in 2016, registering a combined increase of 29%.Ca le TV total profitChartData hare m edCombined projected annual profit (in U.S. dollars)YearFox New , CNN, M N CCN C, Fox u ine , loom erg2012 1,581,800,000 402,000,0002013 1,665,200,000 429,500,0002014 1,737,100,000 477,500,0002015 2,071,300,000 524,900,0002016 2,670,400,000 542,900,000Note: Num er are projection and often revi ed annuall even for previou ear . Di pla ed num er indicate mo t recentupdate . ource: NL Kagan.P W R ARCH C NT RNew room inve tmentIn 2016, the three major cable news channels increased their overall newsroom spending by a combined 9%,according to projections by SNL Kagan, to 2.1 billion. The three major financial networks were also projected toincrease their newsroom spending, in this case by 6% to 682 million.Ca le TV new room pendingChartData hare m edCombined projected newsroom spending (in U.S. dollars)YearFox New , CNN, M N CCN C, Fox u ine , loom erg2006 1,225,400,000 292,400,0002007 1,303,500,000 400,500,0002008 1,417,500,000 478,100,0002009 1,423,500,000 472,200,0002010 1,525,700,000 505,100,0002011 1,649,700,000 538,600,0002012 1,787,900,000 577,600,0002013 1,833,200,000 593,700,0002014 1,903,300,000 620,800,0002015 1,916,100,000 641,600,0002016 2,092,900,000 681,800,000Note: Num er are projection and often revi ed annuall even for previou ear . Di pla ed num er indicate mo t recentupdate . ource: NL Kagan.P W R ARCH C NT R

Find out moreThis fact sheet was compiled by Katerina Eva Matsa, who is a senior researcher focusing on journalism research atPew Research Center.Read the methodology.Find more in-depth explorations of cable news by following the links below.Trump, Clinton Voter Divided in Their Main ource for lection New Jan. 18, 2017The Modern New Con umer Jul 7, 2016

NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING YO UR WO RLDABOUTFOLLOWJournalism & Media ARCHMEN URESEARCH AREASFACT H TAUGU T 7, 2017Digital News Fact SheetMOR FACT H T : TAT OF TH N W M DIAAudience conomic In the U.S., roughly nine-in-ten adults (93%) ever get news online (either via mobile or desktop), and the online spaceFind out moreadvertising revenue across all digital entities (beyond just news) continues to grow, with technology companieshas become a host for the digital homes of both legacy news outlets and new, “born on the web” news outlets. Digitalplaying a large role in the flow of both news and revenue. Explore the patterns and longitudinal data about digitalnews below.AudienceWhile online news includes the digital operations of many so-called “legacy” news organizations (those thatoriginated in print or broadcast), this audience section presents data about digital native news publishers – thoseoriginally founded on the web. (Data on the digital operations of legacy media outlets are included in other fact sheetswhere available.)The digital native news outlets included in this analysis are those whose primary domain – the outlet’s flagshipwebsite – averaged at least 10 million unique visitors per month from October-December of each year analyzed,according to comScore, a cross-platform audience measurement company. There were 36 such outlets in 2016 (for afull list of outlets and collection methods, see the methodology).The average fourth quarter, monthly unique visitors for the primary domains of these outlets increased 12% in 2016to nearly 23 million, according to comScore data. The average minutes per visit was 2.4 minutes.Unique vi itor ChartData hareAverage vi it time m edAverage number of monthly unique visitors for the highest traffic digital native newsoutletsYearAverage monthl unique vi itor 201418,978,777201520,351,765201622,805,209Note: The digital-native new outlet with the highe t traffic are defined a tho e that had a monthl average of at lea t 10million unique vi itor from Octo er-Decem er of each ear anal zed, according to com core data. ach outlet' primar domain – the outlet’ flag hip we ite – wa anal zed; ee the methodolog for a li t of domain . 2016 cohort i a ed on2016 data; 2014 and 2015 cohort are a ed on 2015 data, ince 2015 wa the fir t ear thi anal i wa conducted. ource: com core Media Metrix Multi-platform, unique vi itor , Octo er-Decem er 2014, 2015 and 2016.P W R ARCH C NT RM Y ACCOUNT DONATE

There are many different audience strategies that news outlets use, and the mix of those strategies varies acrossdigital-native news outlets. In 2017, a majority of these highest-traffic digital-native news outlets (61%) have apps forat least one of the two main mobile platforms (iOS and Android). A large portion (42%) of these outlets have apps forboth platforms, while 17% have just an iOS app and 3% have only an Android app.Digital-native new outlet mo ile app availa ilit ChartData hare m ed% of the highest traffic digital native news outlets with an app for .YearAndroid onl iO onl Android iO 201652335201731742Note: The digital-native new outlet with the highe t traffic are defined a tho e that had a monthl average of at lea t 10million unique vi itor from Octo er-Decem er of each ear anal zed, according to com core data. ach outlet' primar domain – the outlet’ flag hip we ite – wa anal zed; ee the methodolog for li t of domain . 2016 cohort i a ed on2016 data; 2014 and 2015 cohort are a ed on 2015 data, ince 2015 wa the fir t ear thi anal i wa conducted.The percent of outlet without either t pe of app i not hown. ource: Pew Re earch Center audit of the 36 highe t traffic digital-native new outlet . ee methodolog for detail on ite election and compari on etween ear .P W R ARCH C NT RDigital-native news outlets are also adopting other outreach and engagement methods. Fully 97% of these outletsoffer newsletters, and 92% have an official presence on Apple News. Three-quarters, meanwhile, release podcasts and61% allow comments on their articles.These outlets are also highly likely to use social media as part of their outreach. Nearly all have official pages oraccounts on Facebook (100%), Twitter (100%), YouTube (97%) and Instagram (92%). Far fewer (25%) have an officialchannel or account on Snapchat.Audience outreachChartData hare ocial media m ed% of the highest traffic digital native news outlets with .Outreach t pe%New letter 97Apple New 92Podca t 75Comment 61Note: The digital-native new outlet with the highe t traffic are defined a tho e that had a monthl average of at lea t 10million unique vi itor from Octo er-Decem er of each ear anal zed, according to com core data. ach outlet' primar domain – the outlet’ flag hip we ite – wa anal zed; ee the methodolog for li t of domain . 2016 cohort i a ed on2016 data; 2014 and 2015 cohort are a ed on 2015 data, ince 2015 wa the fir t ear thi anal i wa conducted. ource: Pew Re earch Center audit of the 36 highe t-traffic digital-native new ite . ee the methodolog for detail on ite election.P W R ARCH C NT R

conomic Digital advertising continues to grow as a proportion of total advertising revenue, a trend driven in large part bygrowth in advertising on mobile devices. The estimates below are for all digital advertising revenue, not just for newsoutlets, and thus are an indicator of the general direction of the economic health of the digital realm rather than thedigital news sector specifically. (There is no available economic data specifically for the digital-native news outletsstudied above.)In 2016, according to eMarketer estimates, digital advertising grew to about 72 billion, an increase from nearly 60billion in 2015. It is estimated to comprise 37% of all advertising revenue, up from 33% in 2015.Digital and non-digital adverti ing revenueChartData hare m edAnnual advertising revenue to all recipients, not just news outlets (in U.S. dollars)YearNo