GUIDE SPECIFICATION FOR FLEXIBLE BRICK PAVEMENT(CLAY BRICK PAVERS ON SAND SETTING BED)JANUARY 2005Note: Numbers and titles used to identify this and related specification sections are in accordance with the 1995CSI MasterFormat.SECTION 02780BRICK PAVERSNote: This guide specification is intended to assist the Design Professional/Specifier in selecting appropriate products and preparing theproject specification section for hand laid flexible brick pavements. Base course materials and installation are not included in thisspecification. The Design Professional/Specifier is responsible for the use and application of this information. Symbol in left margin indicates action is required; edit/select/add/delete to suit project requirements. Each article should be reviewedfor accuracy and edited to suit specific project requirements. Optional text is indicated by brackets, [ ]. Delete unused optional text andbrackets in final specification. Coordinate all Sections with Project Conditions of the Contract.PART 1 GENERAL1.01SUMMARYA.Section Includes:1.Clay Brick Pavers2.Bedding and Jointing Sand3.Edge Restraints4.GeotextilesB.REFERENCED SECTIONS1.Section 01310 – Project Coordination and Project Meetings2.Section 01600 – Product Requirements3.Section 01630 – Product Substitution RequirementsC.RELATED SECTIONS1.[Section: [02300] - Earthwork]2.[Section: [02710] - Bound Base Courses]3.[Section: [02720] - Unbound Base Courses]4.[Section: [02740] - Flexible Pavements]5.[Section: [02750] - Rigid Pavement]6.[Section: [02770] - Curbs and Gutters]Note: Consult a qualified civil engineer for pavement designs subject to vehicular traffic. Pavement design shall be in accordance withestablished pavement design procedures, BIA’s Flexible Vehicular Brick Paving and Flexible Brick Paving Design Guides and TechnicalNotes.1.02REFERENCESPage 1 of 8

A.American Society for Testing and Materials1.ASTM C 33, Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates2.ASTM C 136, Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates3.ASTM C 144, Standard Specification for Aggregate for Masonry Mortar.4.ASTM C 902, Standard Specification for Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick.5.ASTM C 1272, Standard Specification for Heavy Vehicular Paving Brick.6.ASTM D 698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort(12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)).7.ASTM D 1557, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using ModifiedEffort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)).8.ASTM D 2940, Standard Specification for Graded Aggregate Material For Bases or Subbases for Highways orAirportsNote: Use article below to include requests for data to be provided by Contractor, before, during or after construction. Do not requestsubmittals for items sufficiently described by Project Drawings or Specifications, which may result in contradiction.1.03SUBMITTALSA.In accordance with General Conditions of the Contract and Division 1 Submittal Procedures Section.B.Brick Pavers:1.Submit manufacturer’s product literature, installation instructions, and material safety data sheets.Note: Typically, small samples are used for preliminary selection and may not exactly represent the complete color and texture rangeencountered in production runs. Final selections should be made from a mock-up or field sample.2.C.D.E.Submit sample units of each paver type representative of size, shape, color and finish, indicating color variationand texture range expected in finished installation. Color will be selected by [Architect] [Engineer] [LandscapeArchitect] [Owner] from manufacturer’s available color palette.3.Submit test results from [qualified] [approved] independent testing laboratory indicating [ASTM C 902][ASTM C 1272] compliance, as applicable.4.Submit manufacturer’s certification of conformance to ASTM standards.Submit shop drawings and details: Indicate [materials,] [thicknesses,] [sizes,] [finishes,] [shapes,] [edge restraints,][perimeter conditions,] [expansion and control joints].1.Indicate layout [and pattern] describing materials, expansion joints, geotextile location, layout and drainlocations and installation details and methods.2.Indicate relationships of paving joints to adjoining materials, fixtures and assemblies.Bedding and Jointing Sand:1.Submit sieve analysis results in accordance with [ASTM C 136] for bedding and joint sand.2.Provide supplier name, source and type of sands used for bedding and jointing.Paving Installer: Job references from projects similar in size and design to this project. Provide [Owner] [Client][General Contractor] names, postal address, phone, fax and email address.1.04QUALITY ASSURANCEA.Paving Installer Qualifications:1.Three years experience [with at least 100,000 square feet of sand set brick pavers installed.]2.Successful completion of [five] brick paver installations similar in design, material and extent indicated on thisproject.Note:Delete paragraph below if there are no licensing, insurance, bonding or regulatory agency requirements. B.Regulatory Requirements:1. Installer shall be able to provide bonds required for the Work.Note: Use mock-ups or field samples for assessing systems and for review of construction, work co-ordination of several sections, testing,or observation of operation. A mock-up or field sample may also be used for assessing workmanship quality. If Owner or owner’srepresentative elects not to have a mock-up erected, the first 100 square feet of actual construction may serve as a field sample.Page 2 of 8

C.Mock-Ups:1. Install a [10 ft by 10 ft] [6 ft by 6 ft] [4 ft by 4 ft] area of pavers on a prepared substrate including [edge restraint][geotextile material] [drains] to illustrate component application including pattern and edge details.2. When required, provide a separate mock-up for each paver type and bonding pattern.3. Use mock-up to determine pre-compaction bedding sand level, joint sizes, lines, laying pattern(s), and color andtexture range.4. Do not start Work until [Architect] [Engineer] [Landscape Architect] [Owner] has approved mock-up.5. Approved mock-up is the standard by which appearance, workmanship, substrate preparation and materialapplication will be judged.6. Approved field sample may be retained as part of finished work. Remove mock-up and dispose of materials whendirected by [Architect] [Engineer] [Landscape Architect] [Owner].Note: Delete paragraph below if Work of this Section does not require a pre-installation meeting to coordinate materials and techniques,and to sequence related work. D.1.05Pre-Installation Meeting(s):1. Conduct pre-installation meeting [one week] prior to commencing work of this Section to verify projectrequirements, substrate condition, coordination with other trades, installation instructions and warrantyrequirements.2. Coordinate with Section 01310.DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLINGNote: Comply with supplier’s ordering instructions and lead-time requirements to avoid construction delays. Coordinate delivery andpaving schedule to minimize interference with normal use of buildings adjacent to paving.A. B.C.1.06PROJECT CONDITIONSA.1.07General:1. Deliver, store and handle in accordance with Section 01600.2. Deliver, store and handle in accordance with [manufacturer’s] [supplier’s] recommendations.Delivery: Deliver materials in manufacturer’s original, unopened, undamaged packaging with identification labels intact.1. Unload pavers with proper equipment, so no damage occurs to pavers.Storage: Store materials so they are protected from contamination by foreign substances and excessive moisture.1. Store pavers to prevent damage and staining.2. Do not store bedding sand and jointing sand on compacted aggregate base course or in areas that channel water intothe sand.3. Cover bedding sand and jointing sand with waterproof covering. Secure the covering in place.Environmental Requirements:1.Do not install sand or pavers during rain or snowfall.2.Do not install sand or pavers over frozen base course.3.Do not install frozen materials.4.Do not install pavers on frozen or saturated sand.MAINTENANCEA.Extra Materials:1.Furnish {specify quantity} additional pavers to Owner for future maintenance and repair.PART 2 PRODUCTS2.01BRICK PAVERSA.Paver Type: {Specify shape and product name}B.Material Standard: In accordance with [ASTM C 902] [ASTM C 1272], as applicable.Page 3 of 8

Note: Clay pavers are classified according to the severity of weather exposure and traffic they will experience, as well as intended use andmethod of installation. Consult ASTM C 902 or ASTM C 1272 as applicable for descriptions of paver classifications.C.Classification: Specify weathering, traffic and application classifications.1.Specify Class: [SX] [MX] [NX.]2.Specify Type: [I] [II] [III] [R] [F].3.Specify Application: [PS] [PX] [PA].Note: Brick pavers may have lugs or chamfers on each unit. Verify with manufacturers that overall dimensions are inclusive of lugs andexclusive of chamfers when present.D.E.Dimensions: inches ( mm) by inches ( mm) by inches ( mm) thick.Color [and finish]: Specify color. {Specify finish}.Note: Where brick pavers are subject to vehicular traffic, utilize sands that are stable and as hard as practically available. Siliceous sandscomposed of higher percentages of durable minerals such as quartz and very little fine material are attributed with best results. Refer toHeavy Vehicular Design Guide for guidance.2.02JOINTING AND BEDDING SANDA.Provide jointing sand and bedding sand as follows:1.Clean, well graded, sand free from soluble salts and other deleterious or foreign matter. Sand shall be naturalsilica sand or sand manufactured from crushed rock.2.Do not use screenings or stone dust for jointing sand or bedding sand.Note: Coarser sand than specified in ASTM C 144(refer to Table 1 below) may be used for jointing sand, including ASTM C 33 materialwith grading requirements shown in Table 2. ASTM C 33 sand is recommended for joint filling in heavy vehicular pavements. ASTM C 33sand may require significant effort during joint filling in order to completely fill joints. Larger particles often will not enter joints andshould be swept off the surface. Success has been obtained by passing ASTM C 33 sand through a No. 8 sieve. ASTM C 144 sand is morefinely graded and more susceptible to removal from joints. Joint sand stabilizers should be considered when ASTM C 144 sand is used forjoint filling in heavy vehicular pavements.B.Joint Sand Material Requirements: Comply with [ASTM C 144] [ASTM C 33].Table 1Table 2ASTM C 144 Grading RequirementsPercent Passing, by WeightSieve SizeNatural SandManufactured SandNo. 4 (4.75 mm)100100No. 8 (2.36 mm)95 to 10095 to 100No. 16 (1.18 mm)70 to 10070 to 100No. 30 (0.600 mm)40 to 7540 to 75No. 50 (0.300 mm)10 to 3520 to 40No. 100 (0.150 mm)2 to 1510 to 25No. 200 (0.075 mm)0 to 50 to 10 C.ASTM C 33 Grading RequirementsSieve SizePercent Passing3/8 in. (9.5 mm)100No. 4 (4.75 mm)95 to 100No. 8 (2.36 mm)80 to 100No. 16 (1.18 mm)50 to 85No. 30 (0.600 mm)25 to 60No. 50 (0.300 mm)5 to 30No. 100 (0.150 mm)0 to 10No. 200 (0.075 mm)0 to 3Bedding Sand Material Requirements:1.Comply with ASTM C 33 requirements for fine aggregate.2.Do not use mason’s sand, or sand conforming to ASTM C 144 for bedding sand.Note: Retain paragraph above for pavements NOT subject to heavy channelized traffic, or paragraph below for applications subject toheavy channelized traffic, such as at bus stations. D.Bedding Sand Material Requirements (Pavements Subject To Heavy Channelized Traffic):1.Use only naturally occurring, washed silica sand with no silt content.2.Conform to grading requirements of Table 3 below:Page 4 of 8

Table 3Grading Requirements for Bedding Sand Subject toChannelized TrafficSieve sizePercent Passing3/8 in. (9.5 mm)100No. 4 (4.75 mm)95 to 100No. 8 (2.36 mm)75 to 100No. 16 (1.18 mm)55 to 90No. 30 (0.600 mm)35 to 70No. 50 (0.300 mm)0 to 35No. 100 (0.150 mm)0 to 5No. 200 (0.075 mm)Less than 0.3Note: Retain Substitutions paragraph below if allowed.2.03SUBSTITUTIONSA.Under provisions of Section 01630. Provide the following:1.Test results as evidence that substitution meets relevant ASTM standards.2.Financial or performance benefit report.3.Evidence that substitution characteristics meet system design requirements.2.04EDGE RESTRAINTSA.Furnish edge restraints as follows:1.Material Type and Description: {Specify material type and description.}.2.Material Standard: {Specify material standard.}.3.Manufacturer: {Specify manufacturer.}.B.Install edge restraints per manufacturer’s instructions.2.05ACCESSORIESProvide accessory materials as follows:Note: Bedding sand is highly abrasive and may separate non-woven material fibers. If a geotextile is to be located directly under beddingsand, woven geotextiles are recommended.A.Geotextile Fabric:1.Material Type and Description: {Specify material type and description.}. Geotextile fabric shall have aminimum 0.2 mm (No. 70) apparent opening size and permit water passage without allowing sand or soilmigration.2.Material Standard: {Specify material standard.}3.Manufacturer: {Specify manufacturer.}.Note: Delete article below if cleaners, sealers or joint sand stabilizers are not specified.Note: Joint sand stabilizers prevent sand loss and maintain interlock where sand loss could be a problem. Some situations typicallyrequiring joint sand stabilizers are areas where rain water runoff is not caught by gutters or crosswalks, at the bottom of a grade,channeled pavement areas and areas regularly cleaned by mechanical equipment or pressure washing. When a potential for excessivesand loss is identified, joint sand stabilizers should be consideredB.[Cleaners] [Sealers] [Joint Sand Stabilizers]:1.Material Type and Description: {Specify material type and description.}.Page 5 of 8

2.3.4.[Cleaner] [Sealer] [Joint sand stabilizer] shall not cause discoloration, noticeable sheen, or reduce pavement slipor skid resistance below specified value.Material Standard: {Specify material standard.}.Manufacturer: {Specify manufacturer.}.PART 3 EXECUTION3.01EXAMINATIONNote: Surface tolerances of the finished pavement are largely reliant on base course surface. The Installer cannot correct deficiencies inthe base course surface with additional bedding sand or by other means.Verification of Site Conditions:A.General Contractor shall inspect and certify in writing to Installer that site conditions meet the following prior to beddingsand and paver installation:Note: When necessary, subgrade should be drained and protected against flooding and ground water by sub-soil drainage. Sub-soildrainage, pipe and underground service installation should be completed before beginning base course or subbase construction.1.Remove organic, unstable or unconsolidated material from site.Note: Local authorities use various standards to establish minimum subgrade soil compaction. Subgrade compaction to at least 90%modified Proctor density per ASTM D 1557 for cohesive soils and to at least 95% for granular soils is recommended. Subgrade or basecourse stabilization may be necessary with weak or saturated subgrade soils.2.3. Verify conformance of subgrade preparation, compacted density and elevations to specified requirements.Verify geotextile placement in accordance with Project Drawings and specifications.Note: Base course materials conforming to local Department of Transportation requirements for highway pavements or ASTM D 2940 arerecommended. Verify that base course is compacted to at least 95% maximum density. Compaction per ASTM D 1557, modified Proctordensity, is recommended for areas subject to heavy vehicular loads. Small compaction equipment such as tampers are necessary to achieveadequate compaction near curbs, pavement edges, protrusions or other areas that are not accessible to large compaction equipment. base course conformance to specified requirements. Do not use bedding sand to correct deficiencies inbase course surface.Verify written density test results for soil subgrade and base course.Verify type, location and elevations of edge restraints, [concrete collars around] utility structures and drainageinlets.Verify that base course [and geotextile fabric] is ready to support sand, [edge restraints,] pavers and imposedloads.Note: Depressions in the base course surface should be brought up to the specified profile by base course material addition andcompaction. Bedding sand should not be used to correct deficiencies in the base course surface.B.C.D.3.02Do not proceed with bedding sand or paver installation until satisfactory [subgrade soil and] base course conditions areverified by Contractor.Verify that base course is dry and certified by General Contractor as meeting material, installation and gradespecifications.Field Measurements:1.Determine actual paver dimensions (including tolerances) and coordinate with dimensions for pavement areasindicated on Contract Drawings prior to any pavement installation. Adjust pavement area dimensions toeliminate unnecessary paver cutting.PREPARATIONA.Edge Restraint Preparation:Page 6 of 8

1.2.Install edge features and penetrations including curbs, planters, surrounds and bases prior to placing beddingsand layer.Install edge restraints as indicated on Project Drawings and in accordance with manufacturer’srecommendationsNote: Add the two following items when edge restraints are anchored into the base course by spikes 3.4.B.3.03Mount directly on finished base course. Do not install on bedding sand.Locate spikes not less than [6 inches (150 mm)] [a distance equal to the base course thickness] within theprepared base area.Geotextile: Install geotextile where indicated on Contract Drawings. Lap ends and edges a minimum of 12 inches. (300mm.)INSTALLATIONA.Spread bedding sand evenly over base course and screed rails. Screed to 1 inch (25 mm) thickness, not exceeding 1½inches (40 mm) in thickness, including variation in base course surface.1.Do not spread bedding sand beyond area to be covered by pavers the same day. Prior to re-commencement ofwork remove, replace and re-screed bedding sand not covered with pavers the previous work day.2.Do not disturb screeded sand. Re-screed disturbed bedding sand.B.Lay pavers in pattern(s) shown on Project Drawings.1.Lay full pavers first.2.Mix pavers from at least two straps [cubes] [pallets] to produce uniform color blends. [Follow manufacturer’srecommendations for color blending.]3.[Place units by hand without using hammers.]Note: Joint width spacing is critical to establishing interlock and minimizing paver chippage. Studies show that 1/8 inch is optimal. Jointwidths and bond lines are adjusted to meet specifications as paving proceeds. Pavers with insufficient joint spacing are subject to chippingduring installation or service. Pavers with lugs may be placed in contact with each other.Note: Depending on the selected pattern and paver type, optimum joint widths are not always possible. This is something to be discussedin the pre-construction meeting. It is recommended that no more than 5% of joints exceed ¼ inch (6 mm) wide.C.D.Provide 1/16 inch to 3/16 inch (2 to 5 mm) wide joints between pavers.Adjust pavers to form straight bond lines and appropriate joint widths. Maximum bond line variation shall be ½ inch(13 mm) over a 50 foot (15 m) string line.Note: Specify requirements for edge treatment in paragraph below.E.F.G.H.I.J.Fill gaps at paved area edges with cut pavers.1.Cut pavers at edges as indicated on Contract Drawings with a double blade paver splitter or wet cut masonrysaw.2.Cut pavers shall be no smaller than one-third of a whole paver [except where pattern is to be maintained andsmaller pieces are surrounded by a full paver and field paver border course].Do not permit traffic, including construction equipment, on pavers before initial compaction and joint filling. Disturb