Transcription

EMERGENCYEYEWASH & SHOWEREQUIPMENTSELECTION, INSTALLATION & USE GUIDE

FOREWORDThe need for emergency eyewash and shower devices is real. 15,110 U.S. workers wereafflicted by chemical exposures in 2010, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).4,580 of these workers experienced chemical exposures to the eyes. According to governmentdata, in 2010 more than 25,000 workers suffered injuries to the eyes.The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 29 CFR 1910.151, requires that:“Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitablefacilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the workarea for immediate emergency use.” Some States also require emergency eyewash and showerequipment in workplaces where there are irritants or chemicals that are toxic by absorption.Many states require the use of ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 compliant equipment. The InternationalPlumbing Code (IPC) and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) recognize hazards of caustic andcorrosive exposure. IPC, section 411, and UPC, section 416, require the use of ANSI/ISEAZ358.1 compliant equipment whenever eyewash or shower equipment is needed.U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) health and safety regulations, found in 10 CFR 851, followmost OSHA regulations. DOE has stated “where this [injurious exposure of corrosive materials tothe eyes or body] potential exists, there must be an emergency eye wash facility that meets ANSIstandards.” The U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force also require the use of ANSI/ISEA Z358.1.In addition, an emergency eyewash or shower, placed in the correct location not only minimizesan injury, but the proper selection, placement, maintenance and use of emergency eyewash andshower equipment can reduce the cost of workplace injuries.Corrosive ExposuresEmergency eyewash and showers are part of an employer’s worker protection program. Alongwith safety eyewear, gloves and protective apparel, employers should install emergency eyewashand shower equipment.ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 follows established medical opinion that a 15-minute flush of the eyesand body with flushing fluid will provide emergency first aid mitigation of corrosive or causticsplash exposures.The ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard establishes dimensional and performance requirements toensure that units provide sufficient flow of flushing fluid at a safe temperature and a spray patternthat is sufficient to flush the affected body parts without being injurious. It specifies performancerequirements for control valves, so that units operate in 1 second or less and remain in operationuntil intentionally closed. It requires units that are capable of delivering flushing fluid for 15minutes. Test procedures and certification requirements are included for performanceparameters.In addition, ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 provides performance, installation, maintenance and useinformation for equipment used to minimize injury from harmful chemical exposures to the skinand eyes.ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT1

Job Hazard Analysis – A Key to ComplianceA job hazard analysis must be performed to make certain the equipment is accessible andoperational as prescribed in the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard. A full job hazard analysis willallow you to determine what type(s) of emergency eyewash(es) and/or showers are needed,where and possibly in what quantity. The “Hazard Assessment” (on pg. 5) contains additionalinformation on selecting the appropriate equipment for your facility.The ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard provides instructions that units must be properly installed,positioned to deliver flushing fluid in the required pattern and at a safe, tepid temperature,accessible within 10 seconds of a potential exposure, and identified with appropriate signage.Maintenance instructions provide guidance on periodic testing to ensure the proper function of theunits; and employee instruction and training is required.These requirements have evolved from years of experience in the design, manufacture and useof emergency eyewash and shower equipment, incorporating medical recommendations fortimely and continuous irrigation of parts of the body exposed to potentially hazardous materials.Edition No. 1February 2015ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT2

CONTENTS1.2.3.4.PURPOSE AND SCOPE . 4DEFINITIONS . 4HAZARD ASSESSMENT . 5EQUIPMENT TYPES AND FEATURES. 6Equipment Types . 6Emergency Showers . 6Plumbed Emergency Showers . 6Self-contained Emergency Showers . 6Eyewash Equipment . 7Plumbed . 7Self-contained . 7Faucet Integrated/Mounted Eyewashes . 8Eye/Face Wash Equipment. 8Plumbed Eye/Face Washes . 8Self-contained Eye/Face Washes . 8Combination Shower and Eyewash or Eye/Face Wash Units . 9Supplemental Equipment . 10Personal Wash Units . 10Drench Hoses . 10Options/Accessories for Primary Emergency Fixtures . 11Alarms . 11Backflow Preventers . 11Dust Covers . 11Eyewash Test Gauge. 12Foot Controls . 12Freeze Protection for Self-contained Emergency Eyewash Units . 12Freeze Protection for Plumbed Equipment. 13Modesty Curtains . 13Plumbed Hot and Cold Fluid Protection . 14Shower Tester . 14Equipment Construction and Corrosive Materials . 145. FLUSHING FLUID ATTRIBUTES . 15Flushing Fluid Quality . 15Delivery Systems and Temperatures . 15Thermostatic Mixing Valves (TMV) . 16Tankless Water Heaters . 16Heated Storage Tanks . 166. TESTING AND MAINTENANCE . 17Weekly Testing . 17Annual Inspections . 17ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 Annual Inspection Checklist . 187. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 . 198. ISEA EMERGENCY EYE WASH AND SHOWER DIRECTORY . 219. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . 22ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT3

1.PURPOSE AND SCOPEThe purpose of this guide is to provide guidance to users on the need for proper emergency eyewash andshower equipment to mitigate injury from splash and ocular incidents, to illustrate eyewash and showerequipment systems, and to assist in the proper selection, use and maintenance of emergency eyewashand shower equipment.NOTE: This document is meant as a guide only and does not replace the current ANSI/ISEAZ358.1-2014 standard. Please review the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard document for specificrequirements.2.DEFINITIONSANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 contains the following ination unitDrench hoseEmergencyshowerEye/face washEyewashA system whereby a certification organization determines that a manufacturer hasdemonstrated the ability to produce a product that complies with the requirements of thisstandard, authorizes the manufacturer to use a label on listed products that comply with therequirements of this standard, and establishes a follow-up program conducted by thecertification organization as a check on the methods the manufacturer uses to determinecontinued compliance of labeled and listed products with the requirements of this standard.An independent third party organization that determines product compliance with therequirements of this standard with a labeling/listing/follow-up program.An interconnected assembly of emergency equipment supplied by a single source of flushingfluid.A supplemental device consisting of a flexible hose connected to a flushing fluid supply andused to provide fluid to irrigate and flush face and body areas.A device specifically designed and intended to deliver flushing fluid in sufficient volume to causethat fluid to cascade over the entire body.A device used to provide fluid to irrigate and flush both the face and the eyes simultaneously.A device used to provide fluid to irrigate and flush the eyes.Flow pressureThe pressure in the water supply pipe near the water outlet while the faucet or outlet is fullyopen and flowing.Flushing fluidPotable water, preserved water, preserved buffered saline solution or other medicallyacceptable solution manufactured and labeled in accordance with applicable governmentregulations.Freeze protectedequipmentEquipment designed to allow the emergency device to operate under freezing conditions.FreezeprotectionA means to protect flushing fluid in an apparatus from freezing and rendering it inoperable.This can be achieved through several means including mechanical valves and electrical heattracing.HazardousmaterialAny substance or compound that has the capability of producing adverse effects on the healthand safety of humans.ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT4

Personal washPlumbedPotable waterSelf-closingvalveSelf-containedTepid3.A supplementary device that supports plumbed and/or self-contained units, by deliveringimmediate flushing fluid to the eyes or body. These devices do not meet all of the ANSI/ISEAZ358.1-2014 standard’s requirements, such as providing a 15-minute flush/drench and flushingboth eyes simultaneously.A term used to describe equipment that is connected to a continual source of potable water.Water that is suitable for drinking.A valve that closes automatically when released by the user.A term used to describe a stand-alone device containing flushing fluid.A flushing fluid temperature conducive to promoting a minimum 15 minute irrigation period. Asuitable range is 16 - 38º C (60 -100º F).HAZARD ASSESSMENTPlease consult with a safety and health professional or a representativefrom one of the manufacturers listed in this guide for a complete hazardassessment.Some of the considerations, which are also part of a job hazard analysis,include, but are not limited to the following: Identify each operation where hazardous materials are generatedand/or present. Do the safety data sheets of materials used in your facility call for immediately flushing ordrenching upon exposure to the skin or eyes? Is the hazard likely to expose the eyes, face, body or combination or all three? How many employees could be exposed to these hazards at the same time? Is there plumbing near the potential exposure? (This will determine if you can choose between aplumbed or self-contained unit, or if you must use a self-contained unit.) Review the work area where the hazard is present. Can the employees reach theeyewash/shower station within 10 seconds (about 55 feet) via a clear unobstructed path? Review the surrounding environment. Will the eyewash/shower station be exposed to heavy dustor debris? Will it be outdoors and exposed to freezing or extremely hot temperatures?ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT5

4.EQUIPMENT TYPES AND FEATURESIf an employee is splashed with an injurious material, the optimal emergency first aid measure is to flushthe affected area. The following types of ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 complaint devices are designed todeliver 15-minutes of flushing or drenching fluid at the optimal temperature, velocity and spray pattern tomake certain an affected worker receives the needed first aid.Equipment TypesThe criteria for equipment placement, delivered flushing fluid temperatures and spray patternsestablished in the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard apply to primary types of equipment capable ofproviding adequate rinsing of contaminated eye or skin tissue. These devices are capable of delivering a15-minute flush. There are other devices, such as personal wash units that can aid with immediatedecontamination of a victim, but because of their inability to maintain a fluid supply for 15-minutes, theyare considered to be supplemental.Emergency ShowersEmergency shower equipment is appropriate in situations where the potential hazard of full-bodychemical exposure exists. When properly installed, the shower will provide an adequate flow of flushingfluid, dispersed in such a pattern to maximize rinsing of the body for a minimum of 15 minutes. Deliveryof the flushing fluid can come from overhead, the side(s) or both, providing that the pattern meets thestated minimum height and dimensional requirements of the ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard.Plumbed Emergency ShowersAn emergency shower permanently connected to asource of flushing fluid. Plumbed emergencyshowers can be floor mounted, wall mounted orceiling mounted.Self-contained Emergency ShowersAn emergency shower that contains its ownflushing fluid. The fluid must be refilled or replacedafter each use.ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT6

Eyewash EquipmentEyewash stations are likely to be found in settings where impairment of the eye tissue is likely but thepossibility of full-body exposure and contact is minimal. Typical eyewash stations will provide equalamounts of fluid to both eyes at a rate adequate enough to rinse the eyes for 15 minutes. The velocity ofthe flushing fluid stream is low enough such that the user could comfortably hold his or her eyes open inthe stream(s) without causing discomfort.There are two types of eyewash equipment:PlumbedPlumbed emergency eyewash units are fixed positioninstallations where the flushing fluid supply provides adequatevolume and pressure to meet the manufacturer’s specificationand the 0.4 gpm minimum 15 minute flow as specified inANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014. The plumbed eyewash could be mounted in a variety ofmethods to include support by the supply piping, amounting bracket to support the equipment to a fixedobject such as a wall or counter top, or a pipe standassembly referred to as a pedestal mount. The eyewash may include a receptacle (‘bowl’) forcollection and direction of spent fluid away from theeyewash user, typically into a drain or collection sump.The eyewash nozzles must be protected from airbornecontaminants, usually by such methods as integrated covers.Self-containedSelf-contained emergency eyewash units contain a largevolume reservoir of flushing fluid within the unit and aredesigned to provide a continuous 15 minute flow of flushingfluid. These self-contained units come in a variety ofconfigurations: They can be permanently fixed in place or be portableunits designed to be easily moved from one location toanother.The flow of fluid from the reservoir to the spray nozzlecan be delivered under pressure or via gravity feed.They can be wall mounted, pedestal /table mounted ormounted on a cart to maximize mobility.The flushing fluid can be any approved flushing fluidsuch as potable water, preserved water, preservedbuffered saline solution, sterile buffered saline solutionor other medically acceptable solution.Selection of the appropriate self-contained emergencyeyewash unit should be determined by the specificrequirements of the user’s application.ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT7

Faucet Integrated/Mounted EyewashesIn many laboratory, clinic and school applications,you will find eyewashes located on the back of asink as part of the faucet.It is important to know that faucet mount productsmust comply with all aspects of ANSI/ISEA Z358.12014 including 1 second activation.Eye/Face Wash EquipmentThese devices are designed to deliver a minimum 3.0 gpm stream of fluid targeting the ocular cavity,eyes and face. Some fixtures divert a central stream of flushing fluid into several smaller streams toprovide a gentler rinse, while others provide a more directed stream of water to the eye cavities. Othersystems implement streams using an aerated system to disperse the flushing fluid across the face torinse contaminants off. Regardless of the method, an eye/face wash must disperse a minimum of3.0gpm.Plumbed Eye/Face WashesAn eye/face wash unit permanently connected to a source of flushingfluid. The plumbed eye/face wash could be mounted in a variety ofmethods to include support by the supply piping, a mountingbracket to support the equipment to a fixed object such as a wallor counter top, or a pipe stand assembly referred to as a pedestalmount. The eye/face wash may include a receptacle (‘bowl’) for collectionand direction of spent fluid away from the eyewash user, typicallyinto a drain or collection sump.Self-contained Eye/Face WashesAn eye/face wash unit that contains its own flushing fluid. The fluid must be refilled or replaced after eachuse.ISEA SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND USE GUIDE EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT8

Combination Shower and Eyewash or Eye/Face Wash UnitsDrench shower and eyewash or eye/face wash combination units are typically conside