Technology Acceleration:Fuel Cell Bus EvaluationsLeslie EudyNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryMay 21, 2020DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program2019 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation MeetingProject ID # ta013This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information.

OverviewTimeline and BudgetBarriers Project start date: 09/01/03 FY19 DOE funding: 150K FY20 planned DOE funding: 150K Total DOE funds received todate: 4.4M (over 18 years) Lack of current fuel cell vehicle(bus) performance anddurability data Lack of current hydrogen fuelinginfrastructure performance andavailability dataPartners Transit fleets: Operational data,fleet experience Manufacturers: Vehicle specs,data, and review Fuel providers: Fueling data andreviewNREL 2

Relevance Validate fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) performance and cost compared toDOE/DOT targets and conventional technologies Document progress and “lessons learned” on implementing fuel cell systems intransit operations to address barriers to market acceptanceCurrent TargetsaUnits2016 TargetUltimate ,000%8590Roadcall frequency(bus/fuel cell system)miles betweenroadcall3,500/15,0004,000/20,000Operation timehours per day/days per week20/720/7 /mile0.750.40miles per dieselgallon equivalent88 1,000,000600,000Bus lifetimePowerplant lifetimeBus availabilityMaintenance costFuel economyBus CostaFuel Cell Technologies Program Record # 12012, Sept. 2012, fuel cell bus targets.pdfNREL 3

ApproachData Collection/Analysis Standard protocol Third-party analysis Comparisons toconventionaltechnology buses insimilar service (diesel,CNG, diesel hybrid)CNG compressed natural gasIndividual SiteReports Documentsperformance by site Builds database ofresults Reports posted onNREL websiteAnnual FCEB StatusReport (milestone) Analysis comparingresults from all sites Assesses progressand needs forcontinued success Provides input onannual status forDOE/DOT targetsNREL 4

Approach: Data Summary for 2020Selected specifications for FCEBs included in data summaryBus ManufacturerModelBus length/heightFuel cell OEMModelPower (kW)Van HoolA33040 ft/136 in.UTC PowerPureMotion 120120ENCAFCB/Axcess40 ft/140 in.BallardFCvelocity–HD6150New FlyerXcelsior/XHE4040 ft/130 in.BallardFCvelocity-HD8585Hybrid systemSiemens ELFA, VanHool integrationBAE SystemsHybriDriveSiemens ELFA, NewFlyer integrationDesign strategyEnergy storage – OEMFuel cell dominantEnerDelFuel cell dominantA123Battery dominantA123Li-ion17.4 kWhNoLi-ion11 kWhYesLi-ion100 kWhYesTypeCapacityAltoona testedENC ElDorado National CaliforniaAFCB American Fuel Cell BusOEM original equipment manufacturerNREL 5

Approach: Data Summary for 2020FCEB fleets included in data summaryTransit AgencyAbbreviation LocationBus OEMAC TransitACTOakland, CAVan Hool13Fuel cell hours onlySLThousandPalms, CAENC8All, prototype bus removedNew Flyer5Preliminary fuel economydataSanta Ana, CAENC1AllCanton, OHENC5AllSunLine Transit AgencyOrange CountyOCTATransportation AuthorityStark Area RegionalSARTATransit AuthorityAC Transit# Buses Data IncludedSARTASunLine, New FlyerOCTASunLine, ENCNREL 6

Accomplishments and ProgressTop Fuel Cell Powerplant Exceeds 32,000 Hours Top fuel cell powerplant (FCPP) 32,000 hours 12 FCPPs have surpassed DOE/DOT ultimate targetTotal hours accumulated on each FCPP as of 3/1/2020NREL 7

Accomplishments and ProgressFCEB Capital Costs DroppingOEM estimatefor a 40-busorderDOE Ultimate TargetNewest FCEB order 2.8x lower cost compared to early demonstrationsNREL 8

Accomplishments and ProgressReliability: Miles Between Roadcall (MBRC)30,00025,000FC System MBRCMiles20,00015,00010,0005,000Bus MBRC02016 Bus MBRC Target2016 Bus FC System TargetUltimate Bus MBRC TargetUltimate Bus FC System Target Data from newer ENC buses Meeting ultimate target at the end of the data period Fuel cell system roadcalls are caused by balance of plantcomponents, not stack issuesNREL 9

Accomplishments and ProgressMaintenance Cost by System0.50TiresCost by System ( /mi)0.450.40General airsystem repairs0.35Axles, wheels,and drive shaft0.30Lighting0.25HVAC0.20Frame, steering,and suspension0.15Brakes0.10PMI0.050.00# buses: FCEBCNGDieselBEB14141012Propulsion-related Cost for propulsionsystem repairshighest for FCEBs Propulsion issuesinclude:– Cooling systemlabor– Low-voltagebatteries– Fuel cell BOPCab, body, andaccessoriesCumulative cost from in-service dateLabor @ 50/hBEB battery electric busBOP balance of plantPMI preventive maintenance inspectionHVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioningNREL 10

Accomplishments and ProgressPropulsion Maintenance Cost by Sub-System0.20Exhaust0.18HydraulicCost by System ( /mi)0.160.14Electric drive/Transmission0.12Fuel System0.10Cooling0.080.06Air Intake0.040.02Cranking/Charging0.00Electrical# buses: FCEBCNGDieselBEB14141012Cumulative cost from in-service dateLabor @ 50/h FC costs for FCEBprimarily labor ESS cost for FCEBsincluded in electricdrive category Cooling costsprimarily labor forchecking/toppingoff fluidsFC/Engine/ESSBEB battery electric busBOP balance of plantESS energy storage systemNREL 11

Accomplishments and ProgressMaintenance Cost TrendsCumulative maintenance cost from start of serviceCost per Mile ( )0.60Total Maintenance Cost0.500.400.30FCEB cost stabilizes over time0.200.100.00Cost per Mile ( )0.60FCEBMonths from start of serviceDieselCNG (2008)CNG (2016)BEBPropulsion System Maintenance Cost0.50Propulsion system costs for FCEB currently higherthan other technologies0.400.300.200.100.00FCEBMonths from start of serviceDieselCNG (2008)CNG (2016)BEBNREL 12

Accomplishments and ProgressMaintenance Cost TrendsLabor hours per 1000 MileCumulative maintenance cost from start of service109876543210Cost per Mile ( )0.60Labor hours per 1,000 milesFCEB0.50FCEB costs driven by labor costsMonths from start of serviceDieselCNG (2008)CNG (2016)PartsBEBParts cost for FCEBs currently low because most ofthe buses are sill under warranty0.400.300.200.100.00FCEBMonths from start of serviceDieselCNG (2008)CNG (2016)BEBNREL 13

Accomplishments and p-19FCEBNov-1940Oct-190Aug-1950Jul-191Average high temperature (F)10Jun-19Miles per diesel gallon equivalentFuel EconomyAvg high temp Preliminary data on new design FCEBs Average fuel economy: 7.52 mi/kg, 8.52 mpdge Meets DOE/DOT ultimate targetNREL 14

Accomplishments and Progress: Responses toPrevious Year Reviewers’ Comments Project should combine key data to generate insight intothe total cost of ownership.– Response: NREL is evaluating how to incorporate this typeof analysis in the future. Provide data in more severe climates (hot and humid,extreme cold)– Response: As FCEBs are deployed in different locations,NREL will explore the potential to add those vehicles to thedata collection and analysis. Expand the scope to other emerging applications– NREL will be evaluating medium and heavy-duty fuel celltrucks as they are deployed.NREL 15

Collaboration and Coordination Transit agencies (1) provide data on buses, fleet experience,and training and (2) review reports– California: AC Transit, SunLine, OCTA Manufacturers provide some data on buses and review reports– Bus OEMs: New Flyer, ElDorado National– Fuel cell OEMs: Ballard, Hydrogenics, US Hybrid– Hybrid system OEMs: BAE Systems, New Flyer FTA provided funding to cover evaluations of both FCEBs andBEBs – funding ended in 2019 Other organizations share information and analysis results– California Air Resources Board, Center for Transportation and theEnvironment, CALSTARTNREL 16

Remaining Challenges and Barriers For technology acceleration and data collection project:– Continue data collection to track progress of newer-generationdesigns– Establish good relationships with additional transit agencies toadd to the data set For industry to commercialize FCEBs:– Deploy larger fleets: Lower per-bus price: OEMs estimate 1M/bus for higher volumesIncorporate training into current course workAccelerate learning curve for staffAdd trained technicians to staff at local OEM support centers– Install hydrogen stations High capital cost to install, but easier to scale up compared to battery fleet Standardization: each installation is different, making it challenging to planbudgetNREL 17

Proposed Future Work Remainder of FY 2020– Data collection focused on new designs at three fleets: SunLine, 5 New Flyer FCEBs, 1 battery dominant FCEB OCTA, 10 New Flyer FCEBs AC Transit, 10 New Flyer FCEBs– Complete the following data analyses/reports: SunLine AFCB Report, May 2020 (final report for this design) 2020 Annual Status Report, September 2020– Analyze fuel cell truck projects FY 2021– Analyze and report on data from New Flyer FCEBs– Complete annual crosscutting analysis across sitesAny proposed future work is subject to change based on funding levels.NREL 18

Technology Transfer Activities Project provides non-biased evaluation of technologydeveloped by industry Project documents performance results and lessonslearned to aid market in understanding needs for sit agenciesPolicymaking organizationsFunding organizations No technology (hardware/software) is developedthrough this projectNREL 19

Summary: Progress Toward Targets Bus lifetime target: 12 years/ 500,000 milesoMultiple buses have reached 8 years in serviceoUltimate target metoNew orders 2.8 times lower cost compared to early demo busesoPreliminary data on new bus model meets targetoCurrent data show FCEBs do not yet meet interim target (72%)oCurrent cost is slightly more than ultimate target, some buses still underwarranty. Need to track cost for newest design after warranty ends. Powerplant lifetime: 25K hours ultimate target Capital cost: 600K Fuel economy/range: 8 mpg/300 miles Both FCEB U.S. models have completed Altoona testing Increasing interest in the U.S. primarily driven by advantages overBEB technology: increased range, fast fueling, easier scale-up ofinfrastructure Availability: 85% interim, 90% ultimate Operation cost: 0.75/mi interim, 0.40/mi ultimateNREL 20

Thank Youwww.nrel.govThis work was authored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy,LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Funding provided by U.S.NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy EfficiencyDepartment of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office. The viewsNRELa national laboratoryof the byU.S.DepartmentofSustainableEnergy, Officeof Energyand isRenewableoperatedtheAllianceforofEnergy,LLC. Efficiencyexpressedin the articleEnergy,do not necessarilyrepresentthe viewsthe DOE or theU.S. Government.The tainableEnergy,LLC.Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the U.S.Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the publishedform of this work, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

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Accomplishments and ProgressMaintenance Cost: Parts and Labor Majority of FCEB cost is fromlabor—troubleshooting andtraining increase labor hours Parts costs are low while thebuses are under warranty BEBs out of warranty, somereplacement parts areexpensive (DC-DC converter 14K)0.500.450.400.35Cost ( LaborBEB Cumulative cost from in-service dateLabor @ 50/hNREL 23

Accomplishments and ProgressMaintenance Cost: Scheduled and Unscheduled0.500.450.400.35Cost ( eselBEBUnscheduled Similar costs for scheduledmaintenance, with BEB thelowest Diesel buses experiencingissues with emissionsequipment as they age BEBs had increased cost forparts once out of warranty –low-voltage batteries as wellas advanced technologycomponents Cumulative cost from in-service dateLabor @ 50/hNREL 24