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NTDNational Transit Database2017 National TransitSummary and TrendsOffice of Budget and PolicyOctober 2018Federal Transit AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Table of ContentsTable of Exhibits .ivIntroduction . 1General Information . 1What is the National Transit Database (NTD)? . 1Who reports data to the NTD? . 1What are the modes of transit? . 2What is an Urbanized Area (UZA)? . 4What is a Rural Area? . 4What data does the NTD collect? . 4What is Safety and Security reporting?. 5Rounding and Inflation . 6Web Information. 6Transit Trends in Service Operated, Service Consumed, and Costs . 6Report Year 2017 Service and Cost Ratios . 8Transit Service Providers: Organization Type . 10Transit Funding . 11The Federal Transit Administration’s Annual Budget . 11Operating Expense Funding Sources . 11Capital Expenditure Funding Sources. 12Fare Box Recovery . 13Modal Differences . 14Service Size . 14Service Data by Factor . 15Table of Contents — i

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Fixed Guideway and High Intensity Busway . 17Fixed Guideway Route Miles from 2008 to 2017 . 17Fixed Guideway Concentration . 18Safety and Security . 192017 NTD Safety Statistics by Mode . 21Non-Rail Safety Events . 21Rail Safety Events. 22Fatalities. 22Urbanized Areas Over and Under 1 Million People . 24Population and Transit Agencies . 24Trips per Capita . 24Operating Cost per Passenger Trip . 25Operating Cost per Revenue Hour. 25Event Rate Comparison . 26Fixed Guideway Comparison . 27Modal Spotlight: Monorail/ Automated Guideway . 28Ridership by Region . 28Modal Expenses and Fare Recovery . 30Agency Spotlight: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority . 32Rail Direction Route Miles . 32Boston – A Transit Intensive City . 34Unique Transit Modes . 35Aerial Tramway . 36Alaska Railroad . 37Cable Car . 38ii —Table of Contents

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Inclined Plane . 39Monorail/Automated Guideway . 40Públicos . 42Table of Contents — iii

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Table of ExhibitsOperating Expenses and Vehicle Revenue Hours: Time Series (includes ruraland tribe data) . 6Operating Expenses and Unlinked Passenger Trips: Time Series (includesrural and tribe data) . 72017 Cost per Vehicle Revenue Hour . 82017 Cost per Unlinked Passenger Trip . 82017 Cost per Passenger Mile . 9Urban Transit Providers by Type . 102017 Transit Provider Organization Types . 102017 Transportation as a Percentage of the Total Federal Budget . 112017 Funding Sources for Transit Operations . 112017 Funding Sources for Capital Expenses . 122017 Fares as a Proportion of Operating Costs. 132017 Service Provided Size . 142017 Service Consumed Size. 152017 Passenger Miles per Unlinked Passenger Trip (Avg. Trip Length). 152017 Unlinked Passenger Trips per Vehicle Revenue Hour . 162017 Passenger Miles per Vehicle Mile (Average Passengers per Vehicle)17FG Route Miles, 2008-2017 . 18UZAs with Most Directional Route Miles . 192017 NTD Safety and Security Major Event Rates by Mode . 21Non-Rail Event Categories . 21Rail Events by Mode . 22iv —Table of Exhibits

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Fatalities by Person Type . 23Total Passenger Miles Traveled per UZA Size . 242017 Ridership Density (Passenger Trips per Capita) . 25Operating Cost per Passenger Trip . 252017 Operating Cost per Vehicle Revenue Hour . 26Total Reportable S&S Events per 100 Million VRM, by UZA Size . 26Rail, Bus, and Other Fixed Guideway Directional Route Miles Comparison272017 Monorail and Automated Guideway Locations. 28– Unlinked Passenger Trips per Directional Route Mile . 29Fare Recovery Ratio (agencies operating at least one year) . 30Cost per Hour (agencies operating at least one year) . 30Operating Expense Function per VRH by Mode (2017) . 31Capital Cost per DRM . 31Fixed Guideway DRM for MBTA . 32MBTA Directional Route Miles by Mode . 33MBTA Directional Route Miles by Mode . 33PMT per Capita by Top 5 Agencies (Primary UZA) . 34Load Factor of Top 5 Agencies . 34Full Reporters’ Passenger Miles Traveled, 2017 . 35Portland Aerial Tram . 36Aerial Tramway PMT . 36Alaska Railroad Corporation . 37Alaska Railroad PMT . 37San Francisco Cable Car . 38Table of Exhibits — v

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Cable Car PMT . 39Monongahela Incline . 39Inclined Plane PMT . 40Louis Brennan’s Gyrocar & Miami-Dade Metromover . 40Monorail PMT . 41Público . 42Público PMT . 42vi —Table of Exhibits

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017IntroductionGeneral InformationWelcome to the National Transit Summaries and Trends (NTST), one of the FederalTransit Administration’s (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) Annual Data Products.The goal of the NTST is to present and summarize transit data in an easy-to-read formatand to provide an overview of public transit in the United States. This 2017 NTSTdiscusses data from 2008 to 2017. Except for the Rural transit exhibits presented andwhere explicitly noted, all data included in the NTST are from agencies operatingwithin an Urbanized Area (UZA).What is the National Transit Database (NTD)?The National Transit Database (NTD) is the primary source for information and statisticson transit systems in the United States. Congress requires the NTD to collect financialand service information annually from public transportation agencies that benefit fromFTA grants. The NTD also requires larger urban transit providers (Full Reporters) tosubmit monthly operating and safety data. Each year, the FTA uses NTD data to apportionover 8 billion to urbanized areas (UZAs) and States under funding programs such as§5307 (Urbanized Area Formula grants), §5311 (Formula Grants for Rural Areas), §5329(Transit Safety & Oversight grants), and §5337 (State of Good Repair grants).Who reports data to the NTD?§5307 Program RecipientsRecipients or beneficiaries of the FTA's Urbanized Area Formula Program (§5307) mustfile annual reports, monthly ridership, and safety and security reports with the NTD. Thesereporters are also called Urban Reporters. Beginning in FY 2011, transit agencies with30 or fewer vehicles became eligible for reduced reporting requirements, includingreporting exemptions for passenger miles, mode-specific capital and operations costs,employee counts, maintenance performance, energy consumption, monthly ridership,and safety data.§5311 Program RecipientsRecipients or beneficiaries of the FTA's Other Than Urbanized Area Formula Program(§5311) must file annual reports to the rural module of the NTD, also called RuralReporters. States and Indian Tribes report directly to the NTD. States file reports onbehalf of their sub-recipient rural transit agencies, who do not report directly to the NTD.Introduction — 1

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017Voluntary NTD ReportersThe FTA accepts voluntary NTD reports from other transit systems, both public andprivate, that serve both urbanized and non-urbanized areas. Voluntary reporters mustprovide public transportation services and meet the same reporting obligations asmandatory reporters.Some agencies that do not operate transit service report to the NTD. Build Reportersare agencies that benefit from federal funding and are in the process of building transitinfrastructure but do not yet operate service. Planning Reporters do not operate transitservice but instead receive federal funding and distribute the funds among transitoperators in their area.Because of the difference in reporting requirements for agencies that report as SmallSystems, or Reduced Reporters, certain exhibits within this document exclude their datafor the entire ten-year period presented. In these cases, exhibits are labeled with afootnote. Unless otherwise noted, all exhibits in the NTST include data from all urbanreporters.What are the modes of transit?Public transit includes buses, trains, ferryboats, paratransit, and much more. Certaintransportation services are specifically excluded, such as intercity bus service, intercityrail service, intra-facility transport (airport people movers), and sightseeing rides.Different types of vehicles, technologies, and operational characteristics distinguish themodes of transit. FTA identifies the following modes of public transit: Aerial Tramway (TR) is an electric system of aerial cables powered by centralizedmotors with suspended powerless passenger vehicles. Alaska Railroad (AR) is a public transportation system that shares vehicles andfacilities with freight rail operations. Bus (MB) includes a variety of rubber-tired passenger vehicles operating on fixedroutes and schedules over roadways. Bus Rapid Transit (RB) is a fixed-route bus mode that operates frequent service(short headways), has at least 50 percent of its route on exclusive guideways, andincludes features that emulate rail transit modes. Cable Car (CC) is a street-running railway with individually controlled rail carspropelled by underground cables powered by centralized motors not on board thecars.2 — Introduction

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017 Commuter Bus (CB) is a fixed-route bus mode that primarily connects outlyingareas with a central city through bus service that goes at least five miles of closeddoor service. Commuter Rail (CR) is an electric- or diesel-propelled railway for urbanpassenger travel on the general railroad system between a central city andadjacent suburbs. Demand Response (DR) includes automobiles, vans, or small buses dispatchedby request to pick up passengers and transport them to their destinations. Demand Response-Taxi (DT) is a Demand Response function operated throughcontracted taxicab providers. Ferryboat (FB) is a seafaring mode carrying passengers over a body of waterusing steam- or diesel-powered boats. Heavy Rail (HR) is an electric railway that operates on exclusive track with theability to carry a heavy volume of passengers and is typically powered by anelectrified third rail. Hybrid Rail (YR) systems primarily operate light rail-type diesel multiple-unitvehicles on the national system of railroads. Inclined Plane (IP) is a railway on steep slopes with powerless vehicles propelledby centrally powered moving cables. Jitney (JT) includes passenger cars or vans on fixed routes (sometimes with minordeviations according to passenger demand) without fixed schedules or fixed stops. Light Rail (LR) is an electric railway that intersects vehicular traffic at gradecrossings and is typically powered by overhead wires. Monorail/Automated Guideway (MG) is a group of rail services that operate overexclusive guideway and include monorails and driverless people movers. Público (PB) includes passenger vans or small buses operating with fixed routesbut no fixed schedules. Streetcar Rail (SR) is a rail transit system powered by overhead catenaries thatoperates mostly on streets in mixed traffic. Trolleybus (TB) is an electric rubber-tire bus system powered by overheadcatenaries that operates on streets in mixed traffic.Introduction — 3

National Transit Summaries & Trends 2017 Vanpool (VP) includes vans, small buses, and other vehicles operating as a ridesharing arrangement, transporting at least seven people directly between theirhome area and a regular destination.What is an Urbanized Area (UZA)?The U.S. Census Bureau defines urbanized areas based on incorporated places (e.g.,cities, towns, villages) and their adjacent areas. The U.S. Census Bureau considers adensely populated area of 50,000 people or more to be a UZA. There are 498 UZAsaccording to the 2010 U.S. census, and while UZAs make up 2.5 percent of United Statesland area, the populations of UZAs make up 71.5 percent of United States population.The FTA bases UZA designations on the most recent census (currently the 2010 census).The NTD reporting system uses a unique number for each UZA that represents itsnumerical ranking by population. For the purpose of transit grants, the FTA alsodesignates the Virgin Islands, Lake Tahoe, and certain areas in Puerto Rico as urbanizedareas.In the NTD, transit providers indicate the primary UZA of service operations as their“primary UZA” along with any secondary UZAs they serve. For analysis purposes, theNTST groups UZAs into the following categories: UZAs over 1 million: population of more than 1 million (42 urbanized areas, 500agencies, or 46.4 percent of all agencies reporting Primary UZA). UZAs under 1 million: population of more than 50,000 and less than 1 million(456 urbanized areas, 577 agencies, or 53.6bpercent of all agencies reportingPrimary UZA).What is a Rural Area?Rural areas are all areas not included in a UZA. The FTA includes Urban Clusters (2,500– 50,000 population) in rural areas, while the U.S. Cens