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Technical GuideGuide to Protective Coatings,Inspection, and MaintenanceSecond EditionU.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of ReclamationTechnical Service CenterDenver, ColoradoApril 2012

Mission StatementsThe U.S. Department of the Interior protects America’s naturalresources and heritage, honors our cultures and tribal communities,and supplies the energy to power our future.The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop,and protect water and related resources in an environmentally andeconomically sound manner in the interest of the American public.

Technical GuideGuide to Protective Coatings,Inspection, and MaintenanceU.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of ReclamationTechnical Service CenterMaterials Engineering and Research LaboratoryDenver, ColoradoApril 2012

BUREAU OF RECLAMATIONTechnical Service Center, Denver ColoradoMaterials Engineering and Research Laboratory, 86-68180Technical GuideGuide to Protective Coatings, Inspection,and Maintenancebot-ro,k,-,3)Prepared: David S. Tordonato, Ph.D. Materials Engineer, Materials Engineering and Research Lab, 86-68180e-tY Date9,9kPrepared: Allen D. Skaja, Ph.D Chemist, Materials Engineering and Research Lab, 86-68180Checke Title, Dateob i Jo Merten, Ph.D. p, 86-68180Date9hflotPeer Review: William Kepler, Ph.D., P.E.Manager, Materials Engineering and Research Lab, 86-68180DatePeerreviewTechnicalapprova lDescriptionCheckedDatePreparedREVISIONS

Acronyms and VVOCWFTAmerican Society for Testing and MaterialsCode of Federal RegulationsConstruction Specification Institutedibasic esterdry film thicknessUnited States Environmental Protection Agencyfoul-release coatingfeet per secondhigh-volume, low-pressureReclamation’s Materials Engineering and Research Laboratorymilligrams per litermilliliter(s)Material Safety Data SheetNational Association of Corrosion EngineersN methyl-pryrrolidoneOccupational Safety and Health Administrationpolychlorinated biphenylspoly(dimethyl siloxane)pounds per square inchBureau of Reclamationrequired submittal numberSteel Structures Painting CouncilTechnical Service Centerultravioletvolatile organic compoundwet film thicknessSymbols Fμg/m3μs/cmμg/Ldegrees Fahrenheitmicrograms per square metermicrosiemens per centimetermicrograms per liter

ContentsPagePreface. ixChapter I: Introduction and Background . 1Standards . 1Coating References . 1Terminology. 2Corrosion. 2Service Exposure . 4Chapter II: Materials . 5Components of Coatings . 5Solvent . 6Resin . 7Pigment . 8Coating Types . 9Generic Coatings . 9Chapter III: Specifications . 13Construction Specification Institute . 13Reclamation Coating Specifications . 14Coating Tabulations and Categories . 15Coating Tabulations . 16Coating Categories . 16Manufacturer’s Product Data and Application Sheets . 17Addendums and Modifications . 18Chapter IV: Inspector’s Role . 19Primary Responsibilities . 19Daily Responsibilities . 19Material Approval . 21Documentation . 22Instruments, Gauges, and Tools . 22Conflicts . 22Substrate Inspection . 23Coating Inspection Checklist Sheet . 23Precoating Conference . 23Chapter V: Material Storage, Containers, and Shelf Life . 25Storage . 25Containers . 26Shelf Life . 26i

PageChapter VI: Surface Preparation . 27Surface Contaminants . 27Types of Surface Contaminants . 27Compressed Air Contaminants . 28Flash Rusting . 29Presurface Treatment . 30Abrasive Blast Material . 30Nonmetallic Abrasives . 31Naturally Occurring . 31Byproduct . 31Manufactured . 32Sampling and Testing . 32Sampling . 32Testing. 32Nozzle Blast Pressure . 33Surface Preparation Methods . 33SSPC-SP1: Solvent Cleaning. 34SSPC-SP2: Hand Tool Cleaning . 34SSPC-SP3: Power Tool Cleaning . 34SSPC-SP15: Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning. 34NACE 4/SSPC-SP7: Brushoff Blast Cleaning . 35NACE 8/SSPC-SP14: Industrial Blast Cleaning . 35SSPC-SP8: Pickling . 35NACE 3/SSPC-SP6: Commercial Blast Cleaning . 35NACE 2/SSPC-SP10: Near-White Metal Blast Cleaning . 36NACE 1/SSPC-SP5: White Metal Blast Cleaning. 36NACE 5/SSPC-SP12: Surface Preparation and Cleaning of Steel andOther Hard Metals by High- and Ultrahigh Pressure Water JettingPrior to Recoating . 36Photographic Inspection Standards . 37SSPC-VIS 1: Visual Standard for Abrasive Blast Cleaned Steel . 37SSPC-VIS 3: Visual Standard for Power-and Hand-Tool Cleaned Steel . 38NACE 7/SSPC-VIS 4: Guide and Visual Reference Photographsfor Steel Cleaned by Water Jetting . 40Alternative Surface Preparation Methods . 41Sponge Abrasive Blasting . 42Soda Bicarbonate Blasting . 42Dry Ice Blasting . 42Chemical Strippers . 43Chapter VII: Environmental Conditions. 45Environmental Factors Affecting Coatings . 45Ambient Temperature . 45Surface Substrate Temperature . 45Relative Humidity . 46ii

PageDew Point. 46Wind. 46Chapter VIII: Application and Curing . 47Application Temperature and Humidity Restrictions . 47Coating Layers . 47Mixing . 48Application Method . 49Brush . 49Mitten . 49Roller. 50Pipe Roller . 50Fence Roller . 50Pressure Roller . 50Conventional Spray (Applied Cold or Hot) . 50Equipment . 50Working Principle . 50Advantages . 51Disadvantages . 51Use . 51High-Volume, Low-Pressure Spray . 51Equipment . 51Working Principle . 51Advantages . 52Disadvantages . 52Uses . 52Airless Spray (Applied Cold or Hot) . 52Equipment . 52Working Principle . 52Advantages . 52Disadvantages . 53Uses . 53Air-Assisted Airless Spray . 53Equipment . 53Working Principle . 53Advantages . 53Disadvantages . 54Uses . 54Electrostatic Spray . 54Equipment . 54Working Principle . 54Advantages . 54Disadvantages . 54Uses 55Plural Component Spray . 55iii

PageEquipment . 55Working Principle . 55Advantages . 55Disadvantages . 55Uses . 56Cartridge Gun. 56Equipment . 56Working Principle . 56Advantages . 57Disadvantages . 57Uses . 57Application Technique . 57Pot Pressures . 58Air Compressor . 58Spray Gun Technique . 58Drying, Recoating, and Curing . 58Drying . 59Recoating . 59Curing . 59Chapter IX: Field Inspection and Testing . 61Surface Preparation Tests . 61Testing for Chlorides on Prepared Surfaces . 61Surface Profile and Adhesion . 61Dust . 62Wet Film Thickness . 62Hardened Painted Surfaces . 63Dry Film Thickness. 63SSPC-PA2 . 64DFT Gauges . 64Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing . 67Destructive Test Methods . 67Adhesion, Tape Method (ASTM D 3359) . 68Method A . 68Method B . 68Adhesion, Pulloff Method (ASTM D 4541) . 68Dry Film Thickness by Tooke Gauge (ASTM D 4138) . 69Chapter X: Maintenance Coatings . 71Definition . 71Purpose. 71Risk Evaluation . 71Inspection . 72Inspection Schedule . 72Inspection Types . 72iv

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