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OpenStack Deployment and Operations GuideNetApp, Inc.September 2017 Version 7.0AbstractThis guide is intended to detail design considerations, configuration,deployment and ongoing operational practices for the successfulimplementation of OpenStack services atop or in concert with NetApptechnologies. Please note that this version of the guide applies to theMitaka (April 2016) release of OpenStack.

Table of Contents1. Executive Summary . 11.1. Authors and Contributors . 12. OpenStack Overview . 22.1. OpenStack Foundation . 22.2. OpenStack - A Modular Collection of Cloud Services . 22.3. OpenStack Releases and Distributions . 62.4. NetApp's Contributions To OpenStack . 73. About NetApp Storage Systems and Software . 83.1. Description of Data ONTAP . 83.2. Description of FAS Systems . 103.3. Description of E-Series and EF-Series Systems . 113.4. Description of StorageGRID Webscale . 124. OpenStack Block Storage Service (Cinder) . 134.1. Overview . 134.2. Key Concepts . 144.3. Process Structure . 194.4. API Overview . 254.5. Theory of Operation & Deployment Choices . 284.6. Configuration . 434.7. Examples . 755. OpenStack Image Service (Glance) . 905.1. Overview . 905.2. Key Concepts . 905.3. Theory of Operation & Deployment Choices . 915.4. Configuration . 976. OpenStack Shared File System Service (Manila) . 1076.1. Overview . 1076.2. Key Concepts . 1076.3. Process Structure . 1126.4. API Overview . 1166.5. Theory of Operation & Deployment Choices . 1196.6. Configuration . 1236.7. Examples . 1347. OpenStack Compute Service (Nova) . 1507.1. Overview . 1507.2. Key Concepts . 1507.3. Theory of Operation & Deployment Choices . 1518. OpenStack Object Storage Service (Swift) . 1538.1. Overview . 1538.2. Swift Zones and NetApp E-Series Storage . 1558.3. Disk Pools, Volumes, and Mapping . 1568.4. Partitioning and File System Considerations . 1578.5. Swift Ring Considerations with DDP . 1599. Operational Concerns . 1619.1. Operational Concerns with Data ONTAP . 161A. Packaging . 168A.1. Packaging and Downloading Requirements . 168A.2. Installation and Uninstallation . 168A.3. Upgrading and Reverting . 168A.4. Licensing . 168iiOpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

A.5. Versioning .A.6. Deprecated Drivers .B. Troubleshooting .B.1. Common Problems .B.2. Triage and Data Collection .B.3. References .B.4. Support .iiiOpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide168168170170174175175 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

List of Figures2.1. OpenStack High Level Architecture . 34.1. Cinder and Nova Logical Architecture . 144.2. Cinder Processes Concept Diagram . 204.3. Cinder Workflow - Volume Creation . 214.4. Cinder & Nova Workflow - Volume Attach . 224.5. Cinder Backup Workflow . 234.6. Cinder Restore Workflow . 244.7. Cinder & E-Series Deployment Topology . 664.8. Cinder & E-Series Deployment Topology . 705.1. Enhanced Instance Creation with NetApp Copy Offload ToolFlowchart . 946.1. Manila Processes Concept Diagram . 1136.2. Manila Workflow - Share Creation with Share Servers . 1136.3. Manila Workflow - Share Creation without Share Servers . 1158.1. Traditional and E-Series Swift Stack Comparison . 1548.2. Controller-subsystem based zoning . 1558.3. E-Series Controller Layout . 1569.1. Creating Export Rule . 165ivOpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

List of Tables2.1. OpenStack Releases to Date . 64.1. NetApp Supported Backend QoS Spec Options . 174.2. Cinder API Overview - Volume . 254.3. Cinder API Overview - Snapshot . 264.4. Cinder API Overview - Snapshot . 264.5. Cinder API Overview - Backup . 274.6. Cinder API Overview - Volume Type . 274.7. Cinder API Overview - Volume Type Extra Specs . 274.8. Cinder API Overview - Volume Type QoS Specs . 284.9. Behavioral Differences in Cinder Volume Placement . 304.10. Configuration options for NFS Security . 364.11. NetApp supported Extra Specs for use with Cinder Volume Types . 394.12. NetApp supported configuration options for use with OverSubscription . 424.13. Configuration options for clustered Data ONTAP with iSCSI . 454.14. Configuration options for clustered Data ONTAP with NFS . 494.15. Configuration options for clustered Data ONTAP with Fibre Channel . 514.16. Configuration options for Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode withiSCSI . 534.17. Configuration options for Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode with NFS . 564.18. Configuration options for Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode with FibreChannel . 594.19. Configuration options for E-Series with iSCSI . 684.20. Configuration options for E-Series with Fibre Channel . 714.21. Values for specifying host type OS for E-Series Storage Systems . 734.22. Required Web Services Proxy versions . 734.23. Configuration options for NFS backup service . 745.1. Checklist of Steps for Enhanced Instance Creation and Copy Offloadtool for NFS . 985.2. Checklist of Steps for Enhanced Instance Creation . 1026.1. Manila API Overview - Share . 1166.2. Manila API Overview - Share Access . 1176.3. Manila API Overview - Share Export Location . 1176.4. Manila API Overview - Snapshot . 1176.5. Manila API Overview - Share Type . 1186.6. Manila API Overview - Share Type Extra Specs . 1186.7. Manila API Overview - Consistency Groups . 1186.8. Manila API Overview - Share Replication . 1196.9. NetApp supported Extra Specs for use with Manila Share Types . 1226.10. Configuration options for Standalone Network Plugin . 1246.11. Configuration options for Nova Network Plugin . 1256.12. Configuration options for Neutron Network Plugin . 1266.13. Configuration options for clustered Data ONTAP without Share Servermanagement . 1276.14. Configuration options for clustered Data ONTAP with Share Servermanagement . 1306.15. Common Access Level Permissions Required with Any Manila Driver . 1326.16. Access Level Permissions Required For Manila Driver for clustered DataONTAP with share server management - with Cluster-wide AdministrativeAccount . 133vOpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

6.17. Access Level Permissions Required For Manila Driver for clusteredData ONTAP without share server management - with Cluster-wideAdministrative Account . 133viOpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1. Executive SummaryMost options for OpenStack integrated storage solutions aspire to offerscalability, but often lack the features and performance needed for efficient andcost-effective cloud deployment at scale. NetApp platforms integrated withOpenStack avail a unique combination of advanced storage efficiency, integrateddata protection, and non-disruptive operations with the ability to scale whilepreserving performance.With NetApp, organizations can lower risk and enable a broad spectrumof cloud SLAs by combining the power and ingenuity of OpenStack cloudmanagement with proven data integrity and fully-developed storage provisioning,data protection, and efficiency.By leveraging the power of the NetApp clustered Data ONTAP operating system,enterprise organizations and service providers can build a cloud storage platformwith an agile data infrastructure that delivers high-performing, efficient, andscalable open-source cloud services. NetApp provides storage platforms thatenable quick deployment, nimble reaction to change with the ability to scale.With capabilities such as self-healing and integrated data protection for backupand disaster recovery, NetApp solutions are enterprise proven and help reduce riskfor OpenStack cloud deployments. A global network of service provider partnersalready have deployed hundreds of high-SLA cloud services built on NetApp withover a billion users worldwide.Because NetApp technology is integrated with OpenStack Block Storage Service,OpenStack Object Storage Service, OpenStack Image Service and OpenStackCompute Service, users can build on this proven and highly scalable storageplatform to optimize their private and public cloud architectures by reducing riskand increasing efficiency.This document intends to describe the application of NetApp capabilities toenable production OpenStack deployments. In particular, it’s meant to addressthe needs of system architects, system administrators, and storage administratorswho are investigating the use or deployment of OpenStack.1.1. Authors and ContributorsRushi Agrawal, Sajid Akhtar, Tom Barron, Jon Benedict, Bob Callaway, RobertEsker, Chuck Fouts, Jim Holl, Eric Johannes, Andrew Kerr, Clinton Knight, YogeshKshirsagar, Sumit Kumar, Alex Meade, Jon Olby, Goutham Pacha Ravi, AkshaiParthasarathy, Jose Porrua, Michael Price, Mike Rooney, Dustin Schoenbrun,Navneet Singh, Stan Skelton, Tim Snider, Ben Swartzlander, Marty Turner1OpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2. OpenStack OverviewThe OpenStack community is a global collaboration of developers and cloudcomputing technologists producing the ubiquitous open source cloud computingplatform for public and private clouds. The project aims to deliver feature-richsolutions for all types of clouds by being simple to implement yet massivelyscalable. The technology consists of a series of related projects delivering variouscomponents for a cloud infrastructure solution.OpenStack implements services for establishing infrastructure-as-a-servicereleased under the Apache 2.0 open source license. The project is managedby the OpenStack Foundation, a nonprofit corporate entity established inSeptember 2012 that promotes, protects, and empowers OpenStack software andits community.This technology consists of a series of modular projects that control large poolsof processing, storage, and networking resources throughout a data center, allmanaged through a single dashboard that gives administrators control whileempowering users to provision resources in a self-service fashion.OpenStack is committed to an open design and development process.The community operates around a six-month, time-based release cycle withfrequent development milestones. For additional information, refer to http://www.openstack.org.OpenStack is available to be deployed on all major Linux platforms. For additionalinformation, refer to http://wiki.openstack.org/GetOpenStack.2.1. OpenStack FoundationThe OpenStack Foundation promotes the development, distribution and adoptionof the OpenStack cloud operating system. The goal of the OpenStack Foundationis to serve developers, users, and the entire ecosystem by providing a set of sharedresources to grow the footprint of public and private OpenStack clouds, enabletechnology vendors targeting the platform and assist developers in producing thebest cloud software in the industry.NetApp joined as a charter member of the OpenStack Foundation in Augustof 2012. The OpenStack Foundation is an independent body providing sharedresources to help achieve its mission by protecting, empowering, and promotingOpenStack software and the community around it. As a Gold member of theFoundation, NetApp is pleased to be taking a leadership role in the community.2.2. OpenStack - A Modular Collection ofCloud ServicesThe various OpenStack community projects and the services they implementare modular in nature and generally capable of being used independently. Theyare intended to knit together into a net capability greater than the sum of theindividual parts.2OpenStack Deployment & Operations Guide 2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.1. OpenStack High Level ArchitectureOpenStack Compute (project name: Nova)OpenStack enables enterprises and service providers to offer on-demandcomputing resources, by provisioning and managing large networks of virtualmachines. Compute resources are accessible via APIs for developers buildingcloud applications and through web interfaces for administrators and users. Thecompute architecture is designed to scale horizontally on standard hardware.OpenStack Compute is architected to avoid inherent proprietary hardware orsoftware requirements and the ability to integrate with existing systems and thirdparty technologies. It is designed to manage and automate pools of computeresources and can work with widely available virtualization technologies, as wellas bare metal and high-performance co